CLT approach

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In the name of God: 

In the name of God Communicative Language Teaching Instructor: Dr. Dastgoshadeh By: Soma Mohammadi

Method or approach?: 

Method or approach?

The APPROACH: 

The APPROACH Today’s Workshop is about the Approach

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What is communicative language teaching ?

Background : 

Background Where does communicative language teaching come from?

Three phases of language teaching in the last 50 years:: 

Three phases of language teaching in the last 50 years: Phase 1: Traditional approach ALM & SLT Phase 2: Classical CLT ( 1970s to 1990s) Phase 3: current CLT ( late 1990s to the present)

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Widdowson (1978) holds that language is used to achieve a communicative purpose

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Littlewoods (1981) also states that language is used as a tool for communication. Two major points are expressed in the studies of CLT. One is that language is learned to enable one to communicate. The other concerns the curriculum objectives.

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. ‘The aim of CLT is to develop learners’ ability to use a language to communicate with others in real life situations’ (Melrose, 1991; Grauberg , 1997), to help learners use language to communicate meaningfully and to share personal experiences with others.

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Larsen-Freeman (1986) argues that, ‘ the goal of the CLT is to help learners become communicatively competent’ . In order to achieve this goal, ‘learners need to develop communicative abilities, such as expression, interpretation, and negotiation’ (Richards & Rodgers, 1986)

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H. Douglas Brown’s ,( 1994) presentation of four interconnected characteristics could be used as a definition of communicative language teaching (CLT): 1. The language teaching goals should contain all the components in communicative competence .

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2. Learners should be engaged in the pragmatic, functional use of language for meaningful purposes. Organizational competence is not the central focus but should be considered as a facilitator to accomplish those purposes

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3. Fluency , at times, should take on more importance than accuracy in order to keep learners meaningfully engaged in language use.

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4. Students should finally use the language productively and receptively , in appropriate contexts

Theory of language : 

Theory of language Communicative competence

Four dimensions of communicative competence : 

Four dimensions of communicative competence 1 grammatical competence 2.sociolimguistic “ 3. Discourse “ 4. strategic “

Components of communicative competence: 

Components of communicative competence Sandra J. Savignon

Functions of Language: 

Functions of Language the instrumental function the regulatory function the interactional function the personal function the heuristic function the imaginative function the representational function

Theory of learning: : 

Theory of learning: 1. communication principle 2. Task principle 3.meaningfullness principle

Objectives of CLT:: 

Objectives of CLT: 1. An integrative & content level 2. A linguistic & instrumental level 3.Interpersonal relationship & 4.Individual learning needs 5.Extera linguistic goal

Teacher role: 

Teacher role Facilitator Needs analyst Counselor Group process manager

Students role:: 

Students role: Negotiator

The role of instructional materials: : 

The role of instructional materials: 1.Text-based material 2.Task-based 3. Realia

Classroom activities used in CLT: : 

Classroom activities used in CLT: Example Activities Role Play Interviews Information Gap Games Language Exchanges Surveys Pair Work Learning by teaching

What are some examples of communicative exercises?: 

What are some examples of communicative exercises? Extract 1 Betty Schrampfer May. 1989. Understanding and Using English Grammar pp. 279. Prentice Hall Regents Extract 1 Exercise : Using the information in the conversation, complete the sentences in the reported conversation.

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Conversation: “ Where are you from?” asked the passenger sitting next to me on the plane. “ Chicago,” I said. “ That’s nice. I’m from Mapleton. It’s a small town in northern Michigan”. “Oh yes. I’ve heard of it,” I said. “ Michigan is a beautiful state. I’ve been there on vacation many times.” “ Were you in Michigan on vacation this year?” “No, I went far away from home this year. I went to India,” I replied. “ Oh, that’s nice. Is it a long drive from Chicago to India?” she asked me. My mouth fell open. I didn’t know how to respond. Some people certainly need to study geography.

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Reported conversation The passenger sitting next to me on the plane asked me where I was from. I ____    her I ____ from Chicago. She ___ that she ____ from Mapleton, a small town in northern Michigan. She wondered if I __ of it, and I told her that I ___went on to say that I thought Michigan ____ a beautiful state and explained that I ___ there on vacation many times. She ____me if I ____in Michigan in vacation year. I replied that I ___ and ___ her that I ___ far away, to India. Then she asked me if it ___a long drive from Chicago to India! My mouth fell open, I didn’t know how to respond. Some people certainly need to study geography.

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Grouping: pairs or small groups Materials: Bingo card, Single word or number cards, counters Instructions:  Choose 25 words from KLA or literacy text or related activity.  Place them randomly on the bingo card with 9 squares, 16 squares or 25 squares (depending on age).  Prepare enough of these cards for the students in the group, writing words in a different order on each.  Select a ‘caller’ who places single word cards face down.  The caller selects a word at a time and reads it aloud.  Players place counters over the words on their bingo cards.  The first player to have three complete lines is the winner.  The winner reads the three winning lines of words and becomes the next caller. Bingo

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Sentence Sequencing

Communicative Crossword : 

Communicative Crossword Grouping: pairs or small group Materials: Two crossword puzzles:  One with the down words filled in  The other with the across words filled in. Instructions:  Students work in pairs.  One partner has the ‘across’ page and the other has the ‘down’ page.  Partners are not to look at each other’s puzzle.  Each partner reads their clues so that the other can work out their missing words.  Partners can ask for clues (work a limit if necessary)  Once all words on both puzzles have been completed partners check and discuss. Variation: No clues required. Students make up their own clues to describe the words for each word.

Enquiry and Elimination: I Spy : 

Enquiry and Elimination: I Spy A student selects an item from one of the pictures and says: ‘I spy with my little eye, something that…’ (gives a specific clue to its identity) or ‘I’m thinking of something/someone that…’ Other members of group ask questions to enable them to guess the identity of the character or the item. When giving clues about characters of a story, students may describe an action or characteristic ‘…something which hopped off…’ or ‘…something that had horrible fur…’

Paired Word search : 

Paired Word search Grouping: pairs or small group Materials: One word search puzzle. One list of words or a word puzzle showing the location of words. Instructions:  Students work in pairs.  The student with the list of words gives the partner directions and clues to the location and identity of the words in the puzzle.

procedure: : 

procedure :

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Pre-communicative activities Communicative activities

The Characteristics of CLT (John, k & John, h 1998): 

The Characteristics of CLT (John, k & John, h 1998) 1. Appropriateness 2. Message focus 3. Psycholinguistic processing 4. Risk taking 5. Free practice

Relationship with other methods and approaches: 

Relationship with other methods and approaches Content-based Lexical & corpus-based Cooperative learning Task-based language teaching Whole language Neurolinguistic programming Multiple Intelligences

Critiques of CLT: 

Critiques of CLT Paying insufficient attention to the context

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Educational policy Class size Teacher’s language proficiency

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Stern (1992)

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“the so-called communicative approach has few clear links to second language acquisition (SLA) research or psychological theories” cf. Johnson, 1996: 173-4).

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Jack Richards is a New Zealander who has had an international career in language teaching for over 30 years. He has taught in Canada, Brazil, Hawaii, Hong Kong, New Zealand and Singapore, and has written many classic articles and books on methodology and teacher training, including Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching, Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, Curriculum Development in Language Teaching, and Professional Development for Language Teacher. His classroom texts are widely used around the world and over 20 million students have studied English using them, include the best selling series Interchange, Person to Person, and Tactics for Listening. Sydney-based, Dr. Richards is an adjunct professor at Macquarie University, and also teaches for part of each year at the Regional Language Centre, Singapore. http://event.uksw.edu/teflin2006/content/speakers.html

References: 

References Larsen-Freeman, D. (1986). Techniques and principles in language teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Terrell, T. D. (1991). The role of grammar instruction in a communicative approach. Modern Language Journal, 75 (1), 52-63. Swan, M. (1985). A critical look at the communicative approach (2). ELT Journal, 39 (2), 76-87. Brumfit , C.J. and Johnson, K (1979) The Communicative Approach to Language Teaching , OUP, and Oxford. Bachman, L.F. (1986) Fundamental Consideration in Language Testing , OUP, Oxford.

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Hymes , D. (1971), ‘On Communicative Competence ’in Brumfit , C.J. and Johnson, K (1979) The Communicative Approach to language Teaching , OUP, Oxford, P.5-P.27. Harrison, A. (1991), ‘Language Assessment as Theatre: Ten Years of Communicative Testing’, in Language Testing in the 1990s , (1991), Modern English Publications, London. Davies, A. (1991) ‘Language Testing in the 1990’ in Language Testing in the 1990s , (1991), Modern English Publications, London. Halliday , M.A.K. (1973), ‘Towards a Sociolinguistic Background’ in Brumfit , C.J. and Johnson, K. (1979) The Communicative Approach to Language Teaching , OUP, Oxford.

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Rogers, T.S. (1986) Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching , CUP, Cambridge. Nunan , D. (1987) ‘Communicative Teaching: Making it work’ ELT Journal 41/2, OUP, P136-P.145. Richards, J.C. (1983) ‘Communicative Needs in Foreign Language Learning’ ELT Journal 37/2 OUP, P.111-P.119. Richards, J.C. & Rogers, T.S. (1986) Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching , CUP, Cambridge. Johnson, K. (1982), Communicative Syllabus Design and Methodology , Pergamon , Oxford. Widdowson , H.G. (1978) Teaching Language as Communication , OUP, Oxford.

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Hattum , Ton van (2006), The Communicative Approach Rethought , retrieved 2010-10-03 http://www.cal.org/ericcl/digest/rodgers.htm http://ettc.uwb.edupl/strony/ptt/dec95/4/41parcura.html http://www.cal.org/resources/digest/gallow01.html

The end : 

The end

Some questions: : 

Some questions: 1. Which one is not one of the components of communicative language ability? pragmatic competence fluency linguistic competence lexical competence strategic competence

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2. Where does the Communicative Language Teaching stem from? Humanistic Approaches Social- Interactionist Theory Cognitivist Theory Behaviourism Innativism

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3. .......... refers to various abilities which are used to achieve coherence in written texts or conversation. Strategic Competence Pragmatic Competence Discourse Competence Linguistic Competence Communicative Competence

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4. Student: There is a ...., you know, erm .... wooden stick, um around our house, in the garden, I mean ...... Native Speaker: Oh, fence! What kind of competence did the student use to encode his message? Strategic Competence Discourse Competence Linguistic Competence Pragmatic Competence Textual Competence

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5. Which one belongs to the interactive activities? matching sequencing categorizing identifying making surveys

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6. Students are expected to make inferences and give sound decisions on a certain situation in ........... opinion-gap activity reasoning-gap activity information-gap activity interactive activity creative activity

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7. i . It focuses on fluency too much. ii. It emphasizes grammatical accuracy. iii. It ignores communicative language ability. iv. It stresses for communication in the target language. Why has the Communicative Language Activity been highly criticized by some people? i , ii and iii ii and iii ii and iv i and iv only i Forum Anasayfa - IOLP.com | ÝÖLP | ÝOLP | fireboard Forum Component version: 1.0.2 Generated: 21 November, 2011, 13:27

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8. In .........., students express their own personal preferences, feelings or attitudes about a specific situation instead of making generalizations. grammar activities grammar games opinion-gap activity reasoning-gap activity information-gap activity

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9. "If you'd kindly wait a moment, I'II see if he's able to talk to you." "Hang on a minute, love, and I'II get him." Knowing these two responses to a telephone request and choosing the most appropriate one according to the situation refers to ........... Discourse Competence Strategic Competence Lexical Competence Linguistic Competence Pragmatic Competence

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10. .......... accounts for speaking without slowness and hesitation. Communicative Competence fluency Discourse Competence Linguistic Competence Strategic Competence

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11. Littlewood (1981) states that one of the most important characteristic features of communicative language teaching is that it pays systematic attention to functional as well as structural aspects of language. For her Communicative Language Teaching means: teaching grammar teaching functions using procedures for pair work or group work in the classroom integration of grammatical and functional teaching teaching interactions

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12. Howatt (1984) defines Communicative Language Teaching in this way: "Language is acquired through communication, it is not only a question of activating an existing but inert knowledge of the language but also stimulating the development of the language system itself". Howatt describes Communicative Language Teaching as: Forum Anasayfa - IOLP.com | ÝÖLP | ÝOLP | fireboard Forum Component version: 1.0.2 Generated: 21 November, 2011, 13:27 learning to use using language to learn it learning to talk about language the study of language itself learning about learning

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13. Which one of the following can not be one of the activities that are used in Communicative Language Teaching classrooms? language games role plays group activities pair-work recording of the classroom talk

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14. Which one of the following is not one of the roles of teacher who believes in Communicative Language Teaching? model facilitator of the communication process acting as an independent participant in the group a need analyst counselor

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15. Which one of the following can not be an activity that is used in Communicative Language Teaching classrooms? comparing sets of pictures and noting differences discovering missing features in a map transcribing utterances and conversations one learner communicating behind a screen and giving instructions to another on how to draw a picture jig-saw listening

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16. What is the desired goal in Communicative Language Teaching? linguistic competence communicative competence accuracy native-like pronunciation prevention of errors

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17. How are the student feelings dealt with in Communicative Language Teaching? to enhance students' self-confidence indirect positive suggestions are made feelings are not dealt with the teacher constantly observes the students student security is enhanced by the opportunities for cooperative interactions with peers. one regular activity is asking students how they feel

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18. What language skills are emphasized in Communicative Language Teaching? reading and writing speaking listening and speaking listening speaking, listening, reading, writing

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19. What language areas are emphasized in Communicative Language Teaching? functions over forms grammar vocabulary grammar and vocabulary pronunciation

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20. Which one(s) of the following is/are the most common type(s) of interaction in a Communicative Language Teaching classroom? i . teacher to students ii. student to teacher iii. student to student i ii