TYPES OF RAW MATERIALS USED IN COSMETICS

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TYPES OF RAW MATERIALS USED IN COSMETICS A.SOLAIRAJAN, M.PHARM 1st year, S.B.C.P :

TYPES OF RAW MATERIALS USED IN COSMETICS A.SOLAIRAJAN, M.PHARM 1 st year, S.B.C.P

TYPES OF RAW MATERIALS:

TYPES OF RAW MATERIALS

1.WATER:

1.WATER MOST WIDELY USED RAW MATERIALS IN THE MANUFACTURE OF COSMETICS. WATER IS USED AS A SOLVENT FOR MANY INGREDIENTS OF COSMETICS. WATER CONTAINS INORGANIC IONS LIKE CALCIUM,MAGNESIUM,SODIUM,POTASSIUM, BICARBONATE,SULPHATE,CHLORIDE,SILICATES,ETC.

PRESENCE OF INORGANIC IONS MAGNESIUM AND ZINC MAY INTERFERE WITH STATIC CHARGESOF SURFACANTS AND IT SEPARATES THE EMULSION. PRESENCE OF MICRO ORGANISMS IF MICRO ORGANISM ARE PRESENT IN THE FORMULATION OF COSMETICS THEN LEADS TO FOUL ODOUR,VISIBLE COLONIES OF BACTERIA,MOULDS, OR FUNGI. THIS MAY HARM THE COSMETICS :

PRESENCE OF INORGANIC IONS MAGNESIUM AND ZINC MAY INTERFERE WITH STATIC CHARGESOF SURFACANTS AND IT SEPARATES THE EMULSION. PRESENCE OF MICRO ORGANISMS IF MICRO ORGANISM ARE PRESENT IN THE FORMULATION OF COSMETICS THEN LEADS TO FOUL ODOUR,VISIBLE COLONIES OF BACTERIA,MOULDS, OR FUNGI. THIS MAY HARM THE COSMETICS TYPES OF CONTAMINATION IN WATER

PURIFICATION OF WATER:

PURIFICATION OF WATER ION EXCHANGE SYSTEM DISTILLATION REVERSE OSMOSIS MICROBIOLOGICAL PURIFICATION 1.CHEMICAL TREATMENT :- HCHO, SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE 2.HEAT TREATMENT :- WATER HEATED TO 120 . 3.UV RADIATION :- BELOW 300 NM HAS LETHAL EFFECT ON MICRO ORGANISM 4.FILTRATION :- PORE SIZE 0.2 MILLIMICRON OR LESS TO RETAIN BACTERIA.

2.PRESERVATIVES:

2.PRESERVATIVES PRESERVATIVES ARE USED TO PREVENT THE SPOILAGE OF COSMETIC PRODUCTS. TWO MAIN REASONS BEHIND THE SPOILAGE 1.OXIDATION OF OILS AND FATS- ANTI OXIDANT 2.MICROBIAL GROWTH - ANTI MICROBIAL AGENTS

ANTI MICROBIAL AGENTS:

ANTI MICROBIAL AGENTS DEF:- ANTI MICROBIAL AGENTS ARE AGENTS USED TO PREVENT OR INHIBIT THE FORMATION OF MICRO ORGANIS( BACTERIA,YEAST,FUNGI ) OVER THE COSMETIC PRODUCTS. CONTAMINATED COSMETICS USUALLY CONTAINS STAPHYLOCOCCI DIPHTHEROIDS FUNGI YEAST

IDEAL ANTI MICROBIAL AGENTS:

IDEAL ANTI MICROBIAL AGENTS SHOULD BE COMPATIBLE WITH FORMULATIONS. TO PROVIDE SUSTAINED ANTI MICROBIAL ACTION. SHOULD BE COLOURLESS AND ODOURLESS. SHOULD BE NON TOXIC,NON IRRITANT AND NON ALLERGIC TO THE SKIN

CLASSIFICATION OF PRESERVATIVES FOR THEIR CHEMICAL NATURE:

CLASSIFICATION OF PRESERVATIVES FOR THEIR CHEMICAL NATURE 1.ORANIC ACIDS BENZOIC ACID FORMIC ACID SALICYLIC ACID P-HYDROXY BENZOIC ACID 2.ALCOHOLS ETHYL ALCOHOL ISOPROPYL ALCOHOL CHLORBUTANOL 3.ALDEHYDES FORMALDEHYDE CINNAMIC ALDEHYDE 4.PHENOLIC COMPOUINDS CRESOL P-CHLORO m-CRESOL PHENOL

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5.ESTERS METHYL p-HYDROXY BENZOATE ETHYL p-HYDROXY BENZOATE 6.MERCURY COMPOUNDS THIOMERSOL NITROMERSOL PHENYL MERCURIC NITRATE 7.SURFACE ACTIVE AGENTS BENZALKONIUM CHLORIDE CETYL PYRIDINIUM CHLORIDE 8.MISCELLANEOUS COMPOUNDS VANILLIN ETHYL VANILLIN TETRAMETHYL THIURAM-DISULPHIDE(TMTD)

FACTORS AFFECTING PRESERVATIVE ACTION:

FACTORS AFFECTING PRESERVATIVE ACTION 1.DISSOCIATION OF P H QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS ARE EFFECTIVE IN HIGHER P H (ALKALINE) BUT INEFFECTIVE IN ACIDIC P H 2.CONCENTRATION RECOMMENDED EFFECTIVE CONCENTRATION 0.001% FOR ORGANIC MERCURY COMPOUNDS TO 0.5-1.0% FOR WEAK ACIDS 3.SUSCEPTIBILITY OF ORGANISMS HYDROXY BENZOATES ACTIVE AGAINST MOULDS,YEAST,FUNGI AND LESS ACTIVE AGAINST BACTERIA . 4.INTERFERENCE BY INGEDIENTS OF COSMETICS TWEEN 80,PEG1000 MONOCETYL ETHER,PEG 400 LAURATE INTERFERE WITH ACTIVITY OF PRESERVATIVES 5.INFLUENCE OF SOLID PARTICLES EXTENT OF ABSORPTION DEPEND ON NATURE OF SOLID PARTICLES AND P H

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ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS CONCENTRATION BENZOIC ACID 0.5% SALICYLIC ACID 0.5% BENZALKONIUM CHLORIDE 0.25% FORMALDEHYDE 0.1% P-HYDROXY BENZOIC ACID 0.1% PHENYL MERCURIC ACETATE 0.002% SORBIC ACID 1.0% BENZYL ALCOHOL 0.1% CHLORBUTANOL 0.5%

ANTI OXIDANTS:

ANTI OXIDANTS COSMETIC PREPARATIONS CONTAIN FATS AND OILS ARE SUSCEPTIBLE TO OXIDATIVE DETERIORATION . TO PREVENT THE OXIDATIVE DETERIORATION USE ANTI OXIDANTS IN COSMETICS. RANCIDITY (SMELLING OR TASTING LIKE RANK STALE FAT) -OCCURS DUE TO OXIDATION OF FATS AND OILS. CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI OXIDANTS 1.PHENOLIC TYPE GALLIC ACID BUTYLATED HYDROXY ANISOLE(BHA) BUTYLATED HYDROXY TOLUENE(BHT)

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2.QUINONE TYPE TOCOPHEROLS HYDROXY CHROMANS HYDROXY COUMARONES 3.AMINE TYPE ETHANOLAMINE LECITHIN PURINES 4.ORGANIC ACIDS,ALCOHOLS AND ESTERS ASCORBIC ACID CITRIC ACID OXALIC ACID MALIC ACID SORBITOL ISOPROPYL CITRATE 5.INORGANIC ACIDS AND THEIR SALTS PHOSPHORUS ACID SODIUM SULPHITE SODIUM META SULPHITE

SELECTION OF ANTIOXIDANT:

SELECTION OF ANTIOXIDANT P H OF COSMETIC INTENDED USE OF COSMETIC EXPECTED SHELF LIFE OF COSMETIC CONDITIONS OF STORAGE OF COSMETIC NATURE OF FAT OR OILAS INGREDIENT OF COSMETIC ANTIOXIDANT USED IN AQUEOUS SYSTEM SODIUM METABISULPHITE ASCORBIC ACID SODIUM BISULPHITE SODIUM THIOSULPHATE ANTIOXIDANTS USED IN NON AQUEOUS SYSTEM BHA BHT LECITHIN PROPYL GALLATE HYDROQUINONE

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NAME OF ANTI OXIDANT CONCENTRATIONS USED PROPYL GALLATE 0.005-0.15% BHA 0.005-0.01% BHT 0.01% ALPHA TOCOPHEROLS 0.05-0.1% SODIUM METABISULPHITE 0.01-1.0%

UV ABSORBERS:

UV ABSORBERS TO PREVENT PHOTO DETERIORATION , UV ABSORBERS ARE USED IN THE COSMETIC FORMULATIONS . UV LIGHT SENSITISATION MINIMISED BY USING AMBERED COLOURED BOTTLES. EXAMPLE - URIC ACID IN CONCENTRATION OF 0.02-0.5% ACTS AS UV ABSORBER.

3.HUMECTANTS:

3.HUMECTANTS DEFINITION:- HUMECTANTS ARE AGENTS USED TO ABSORB MOISTURE FROM THE ATMOSPHERE AND FORMS THIN FILM OVER THE TEXTURE OF THE SKIN AND PREVENT THEIR DRYING. TYPES OF HUMECTANTS INORGANIC HUMECTANTS(LIMITED USE,CORROSIVE NATURE) EX:-CALCIUM CHLORIDE METAL ORGANIC HUMECTANTS(LIMITED USE) EX:-SODIUM LACTATE ORGANIC HUMECTANTS POLYHYDRIC ALCOHOLS ETHYLENE GLYCOL PROPYLENE GLYCOL GLYCEROL PEG

4.SURFACTANTS:

4.SURFACTANTS DERINITION:- SURFACTANTS ARE AGENTS LOWER ONE OR MORE BOUNARY TENSIONS AT INTERFACE IN THE SYSTEM. USES OF SURFACTANTS:- DETERGENCY WETTING FOAMING EMULSIFICATION SOLUBILIZATION CLASSIFICATION OF SURFACTANTS:- ANIONIC - IT CARRIES NEGATIVE ION IN SOLUTION EX-SODIUM OLEATE-C 17 H 33 COO - Na + CATIONIC -IT CARRIES POSITIVE ION IN SOLUTION EX-ALKYL TRIMETHYL AMMONIUM SALTS NON-IONIC -HDROPHILIC UNCHARGED POLAR GROUPS EX-ALKYL POLYGLYCOL ETHERS AMPHOLYTIC -IT CARRIES BOTH NEGATIVE AND POSITIVE IONS IN SOLUTIONS. EX- ACYL PEPTIDES,BETAINS

USES OF SURFACATANTS:

USES OF SURFACATANTS EMULSIFYING AGENTS FOAMING AND CLEANSING AGENTS WETTING AGENTS SOLUBILISING AGENTS 5.OILS,FATS,&WAXES OILS:- VEGETABLE ORIGIN MINERAL ORIGIN VEGETABLE OILS:- ALMOND OIL - EMOLLIENT PROPERTIES USED IN CREAMS AND LOTIONS. ARACHIS OIL - USED IN HAIR OILS AND BRILLIANTINES CASTOR OIL - USED IN LIPSTICKS,HAUR OILS,CREAMS. OLIVE OIL - EMOLLIENT AND SOOTHING, USED IN BATH OILS,CREAMS. COCONUT OIL

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MINERAL OILS LIGHT LIQUID PARAFFIN:- USED IN BATH OILS,HAIR OILS,LOTIONS AND CREAMS. HEAVY LIQUID PARAFFIN:- EMOLLIENT IN NATURE,USED IN CREAMS,LOTIONS,HAIR OILS,BATH OILS. FATS FATTY ACIDS OLEIC ACID IS USED FOR ENHANCING PEARLY SHEEN IN LOTIONS AND CREAMS FATTY ALCOHOLS LAURYL ALCOHOL AND MYRISTYL ALCOHOL USED IN CREAMS AND LOTIONS FATTY ACID ESTERS GLYCERYL MONOSTEARATE,ETHYLENE GLYCOL MONOSTEARATE (0.5%-5% IN LOTIONS & 1%-10% IN CREAMS) LANOLIN AND ITS DERIVATIVES USED AS A EMULSIFIER IN W/O TYPE EMULSION

SOFT PARAFFINS:

SOFT PARAFFINS PURIFIED MIXTURE OF HYDRO CARBONS OBTAINED FROM PETROLEUM. ACT AS A EMOLLIENT AND PREVENTS WATER LOSS FROM THE SKIN AND PROMOTING ITS HYDRATION. WAXES BEES WAX SPERMACETI PARAFFIN WAX CERESIN WAX CARAUBA WAX

6.PERFUMES:

6.PERFUMES Perfumes are a mixture of fragrant essential oil and aroma compounds, fixatives, and solvents used to give the human body, objects, and living spaces a pleasant smell. NATURAL INGREDIENTS :- FLOWERS - ROSE,JASMINE,OSMANTHUS,MIMOSE,TUBEROSE FRUITS - ORANGE,LEMON,GRAPE FRUITS SEEDS - CORIANDER,CARAWAY,COCOA,CARDAMOM,ANISE. WOOD - SANDALWOOD,ROSEWOOD. ROOTS - ROOTS OF ZINGER FAMILY RESINS - PERU BALSAMS,GUM BENZOIN,PINE AND FIR RESINS LEAVES - LAVENDER LEAF,ROSE MARY,CITRUS LEAVES. ANIMAL SOURCES:- CASTOR COMES FROM BEAVERS, MUSK FOM MALE DEER, AMBERGRIS FROM SPERMWHALE .

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ANIMAL SOURCES OFTEN USED AS FIXATIVES THAT ENABLES PERFUME EVAPORATE SLOWLY AND EMITS ODORS LONGER. Various animal products as FIXATIVES :- Ambergis , musk, castoreum , civet e.g. ambergris compound from sage FIXATIVES:-

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Perfume odorant types :- Concretes Purest, soft plant parts are placed in solvent Absolutes Concretes concentrated in alcohol Resinoids Extracted like concretes, from plant secretions Tinctures Direct extraction with ethanol Distilled essential oils Most common modern methods

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Perfume anatomy:- Top notes: - Immediately perceived, highly volatile, bright, often citrus,ginger . Middle notes:- A minute to an hour; often rose, lavender. Bottom notes :- Often animal, resin scents, perhaps vanilla,sandlewood

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Types of fragances :- Perfume (22% essential oils) Eau de Parfum (15-22%) Eau de Toilette (8-15%) Eau de Cologne (4%) PERFUMES SOURCE USES LAVENDER L.ANGUSTIFOLIA/ MINT FAMILY MEN’S FRAGRANCES ROSE ROSA CENTIFOLIA PERFUMES AND FOODS GERANIUM Pelargonium graveolens Insect repellent JASMINE Jasminum grandiflorum Used to be enfleurage ORANGE Citrus species Perfumes

7.COLOURS:

7.COLOURS COLOUR IS AN IMPORTANT RAW MATERIAL IN COSMETICS. COLOURS USED IN COSMETICS CLASSIFIED INTO THREE CLASSES. NATURAL COLOURS COCHINEAL SAFFRON CHLOROPHYLL HENNA BEET EXTRACT CARAMEL COLOURING AND CARROT OIL. INORGANIC COLOURS IRON OXIDES CHROMIUM OXIDES CARBON BLACK TITANIUM DIOXIDE ZINC OXIDE

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ORGANIC COLOURS:- ORGANIC COLORS ARE DERIVED FROM COAL SOURCES, IT IS CALLED AS COALTAR OR ANILINES . Indigoid Group Xanthene Group Azo Group Anthraquinone Group Quinoline Group ACCORDING TO DRUGS AND COSMETICS ACT , COAL TAR CAN NOT BE USED IN COSMETICS. THIS RULE FURTHER PRESCRIBES THAT SCHEDULE Q COLOURS SHOULD NOT CONTAIN MORE THAN. 2 ppm OF ARSENIC TRIOXIDE 20 ppm OF LEAD 100 ppm OF HEAVY METALS OTHER THAN LEAD.

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US approved organic colors :- Us approved colours are designated as FD&C, D&C Ext. D&C . FD&C :- certified for use in food, drugs & cosmetics . D&C :- certified for use in drugs & cosmetics including in those in contact with mucous membranes and those that are ingested. External D&C :- certified for use in drugs & cosmetics that do not come in contact with mucouse membranes or those that are ingested .

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Selecting Colorants Based on Regulations Products that do not come into contact with mucous membranes or eye area:- shampoo, conditioner, U se FD&C, D&C or Ext. D&C colors hand cream. Products that are used around the mouth:- Face cream, lipsticks Use FD&C or specifically approved D&C colors. . Products that are used around the eye:- Use only inorganic or natural colors or specifically Mascara, Eye shadow approved organic colors (e.g. FD&C Yellow 5)

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Selecting Colorants Based on Formulation :- Color selection depends also on the properties of a formulation. Liquid products :- ( e.g. shampoo, lotion ): Use water-soluble D&C or FD&C colors. Solid products :- ( e.g. powders ): Use inorganic or insoluble organic colors (Lakes)

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SOME COLOURS PERMITTED TO USE IN COSMETICS UNDER SCHEDULE Q TARTRAZINE SUNSET YELLOW AMARANTH BRILLIANT BLUE EOSIN TS

REFERNCES:- :

REFERNCES:- COSMETICS – FORMULATION,MANUFACTURING & QUALITY CONTROL BY P.P.SHARMA THIRD EDITION. WIKIPEDIA SOURCES- HOW PERFUMES ARE MADE? WWW. MAKINGCOSMETICS.COM/COLORANTS PIGMENTS .

THANK YOU:

THANK YOU

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