VARIOUS ROLES OF MICROORGANISMS : VARIOUS ROLES OF MICROORGANISMS PRESENTED BY : SOHAIL KHAN ” Martin H. Fischer : ” Martin H. Fischer “Don't forget that the flavors of wine and cheese depend upon the types of infecting microorganisms Introduction: : Introduction: Microbes are organisms that we need a microscope to see Include the bacteria, Virus, fungi, and protozoa Found everywhere in the environment They acquire both beneficial and harmful aspects Study of microbes is called microbiology INTRODUCTION TO SOME IMPORTANT MICROBES: INTRODUCTION TO SOME IMPORTANT MICROBES BACTERIA FUNGI PROTOZOA VIRUS BACTERIA: BACTERIA Small prokaryotic cells, typically from 0.2 to 1 um in length Found everywhere in water, soil, and even air Reproduce by doubling with a generation time of 20 minutes Some bacteria are capable of locomotion ROLES OF BACTERIA: ROLES OF BACTERIA Great for environment Nitrogen fixation Bacteria in your food Cleaning up environment Biotechnology and bacteria Vitamin synthesis GREAT FOR ENVIROMENT: GREAT FOR ENVIROMENT Environment could not exist without bacteria They help to recycle dead animals and plants NITROGEN FIXATION: NITROGEN FIXATION Nitrogen gas makes up about 78% of the air,but most plants cannot use nitrogen directly from the air Nitrogen-fixing bacteria take in nitrogen from the air and change it to a form that plants can use BACTERIA IN YOUR FOOD: BACTERIA IN YOUR FOOD People raise bacteria for food Cheese, yogurt, buttermilk, or sour cream Lactic acid-producing bacteria break down the sugar in milk Lactic acid preserves and adds flavor to the food. CLEANING UP ENVIROMENT: CLEANING UP ENVIROMENT Bacteria and other microorganisms are also used to fight pollution Bioremediation means using microorganisms to change harmful chemicals into harmless ones Used to clean up oil spills Leaves and twigs are recycled over time with the help of bacteria BIOTECNOLOGY AND BACTERIA: BIOTECNOLOGY AND BACTERIA Application of organisms such as bacteria to the manufacturing and services industries Fermentation processes, such as brewing, baking, cheese and butter manufacturing Chemical manufacturing such as ethanol, acetone, organic acid, enzymes, perfumes Pharmaceuticals, such as antibiotics, vaccines and steroids. VITAMIN SYNTHESIS: VITAMIN SYNTHESIS Escherichia coli that lives in the human large intestine synthesize vitamin B and release it for human use Clostridium butyclicum is used for commercial preparation of riboflavin, and vitamin B . FUNGI: FUNGI Kingdom of multicellular, heterotrophic Organisms with thick cell walls Grow as thread-like filaments Reproductive organs of the fungi are called fruiting bodies or sporangia Absorptive mode of nutrition Examples are yeast and mushrooms ROLES OF FUNGI: ROLES OF FUNGI Recycling Mycorrhizae and plant growth Food Medicines RECYCLING: RECYCLING Responsible for most of the recycling which returns dead material to the soil Without fungi , recycling activities would be seriously reduced . MYCORRHIZAE AND PLANT GROWTH: MYCORRHIZAE AND PLANT GROWTH Fungi are vitally important for the good growth of most plants, including crops, through the development of mycorrhizal associations It plays important role food chain FOOD: FOOD Important directly as food for humans Many mushrooms are edible and different species are cultivated for sale worldwide Some mushrooms are deadly if they are eaten. MEDICINES: MEDICINES Most famous of all antibiotic drugs, is derived from a common fungus called Penicillium Some fungi which parasitise caterpillars have also been traditionally used as medicines Source of a powerful and important drug, which has uses in childbirth PROTOZOA: PROTOZOA Single-celled animals that feed primarily on bacteria Several times larger than bacteria, ranging from 1/5000 to 1/50 of an inch (5 to 500 μ m) in diameter Classified into three groups based on their shape that are flagellates ciliates Sarcodina or amoebae ROLE OF PROTOZOA: ROLE OF PROTOZOA Play an important role in mineralizing nutrients They release the excess N in the form of ammonium (NH4+) Help maintain an ecological balance in the soil Protozoa are also an important food source for other soil organisms Help to suppress disease by competing with or feeding on pathogens VIRUS: VIRUS Biological agent that reproduces inside the cells of living hosts A virus consists of two or three parts: genes , made from either DNA or RNA , long molecules that carry the genetic information; a protein coat that protects the genes Some viruses, an envelope of fat that surrounds and protects them when they are not contained within a host cell Viruses are about 100 times smaller than bacteria Viruses spread in many different ways and cause diseases ROLE OF VIRUSES: ROLE OF VIRUSES Viruses are bringing hope to those with previously incurable genetic diseases They are essential to the regulation of saltwater and freshwater ecosystems They infect and destroy the bacteria in microbial communities ROLE OF VIRUSES: ROLE OF VIRUSES Increases genetic diversity and drives evolution The ability of viruses to cause devastating epidemics in human societies has led to the concern that viruses could be weaponised for biological warfare REFRENCES: REFRENCES Alexander, Martin, 1991, Introduction to Soil Microbiology, 2nd Edition, Krieger Publishing Company, Malabar, Florida Soil Quality Basics Cavigelli, M.A., S.R. Deming, L.K. Probyn, and R.R. Harwood (eds.). 1998. Extension Bulletin E-2646 http://www.countrysideinfo.co.uk/fungi/importce. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2393/11/54 ANY QUESTIONS?: ANY QUESTIONS?