Training and Visit (T & V) in Agriculture Extension

Category: Education

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Sohail Ilyas:

Sohail Ilyas University of Agriculture Faisalabad Pakistan

Training and Visit System (T & V):

Training and Visit System (T & V) T & V is a unique approach bringing professional subject matter specialist and farmers together to learn and facilitate farming operations to help farmers produce more

Meaning and Concept of Training and Visit System: :

Meaning and Concept of Training and Visit System: The Training and Visit system in Agricultural Extension Education is designed for building a lined professional extension service that is capable of guiding the farmers in agricultural production and raising their income by providing appropriate plans for country development

Training & Visit Basic Assumptions:

Training & Visit Basic Assumptions The assumptions with this approach are : EFS are poorly trained and not up-to-date

Training & Visit Basic Assumptions cont.:

Training & Visit Basic Assumptions cont. less frequent visits and extension contact  management and supervision are inadequate and two way flow of information between research and extension is weak


Purpose T & V approach was to ensure that : The extension agents should carry out extension  functions exclusively Extension should be closely linked with the research Training should be a regular and continuous process  at all levels  Work should be  time-bound Field and farmer orientation should be maintained

Training & Visit Cont. Nature of planning:

Training & Visit Cont . Nature of planning Top-down approach to planning Decisions are taken at the top Production recommendation send down to farmers for adoption Rural people are usually not involve Farmers problems and challenges are suppose to be conveyed to SMS  by EFS

Training & Visit Cont. Implementation Techniques:

Training & Visit Cont . Implementation Techniques Contact farmer approach Field demonstration Farm  visits and tours Group and individual meetings Telephone calls

Training & Visit Cont. Implementation Techniques:

Training & Visit Cont. Implementation Techniques Fortnightly visit by agent Fortnightly regular of EFS by SMS Evaluation by EFS and SMS Evaluation and review by RELC at the zonal level

Training & Visit Cont. Field Staffs:

Training & Visit Cont . Field  Staffs Reduction of operational areas Regular and continue training of EFS Provision of logistics eg . motorbikes, teaching materials etc Better and improve emolument of  EFS (Extension Field staff)

Training & Visit Cont. Measure of Success:

Training & Visit Cont . Measure of Success Level of adoption of innovation Farmers KAPS Productivity

Training & Visit Cont. Advantages/Strengths of T&V :

Training & Visit Cont. Advantages/Strengths of T&V This system/approach had provided an effective way for improving knowledge and efficiency of the extension staff . Improvement in extension coverage F ixed schedule of visits to farmers, which helped farmers to have contact with EFS on the one hand and helped the supervisory staff  to know the whereabouts of the EFS

T & V Cont. Advantages/Strengths of T&V Cont.:

T & V Cont. Advantages/Strengths  of T&V Cont. Regular training of the staff which helped to  develop technical  competence and effective delivery . The extension workers were assigned specific job Provision of logistic support in terms of providing mobility etc

Failures or Weaknesses of T & V:

Failures or Weaknesses of T & V It was a top-down approach (expert know all ) So called expert transfer technology to solve rural people problems It was also criticized as too rigid in terms of fortnightly visits especially  during the slack  seasons

Failures or Weaknesses of T & V:

Failures or Weaknesses of T & V

Failures or Weaknesses of T & V:

Failures or Weaknesses of T & V Its main focus was on procedural aspects rather than other essential aspects like the message  and its dissemination It is an expensive approach as it involves high level of recurrent expenditure in developing countries like Pakistan & India

  Failures or Weaknesses of T & V :

  Failures or Weaknesses of T & V It is too labor intensive which a poor country like Pakistan  may not be able to  afford This approach did not make effective use of  mass media The selection of CFs was biased as they were not representatives of the resource poor  farmers

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