Coronavirus update..Dr. Sajid Mumtaz Sodhar

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Coronavirus. :

Coronavirus . Dr. Sajid Mumtaz Sodhar . Novel Coronavirus He who cures a disease may be the skillfullest , but he that prevents it is the safest physician.

Severe Respiratory Illness Associated with a Novel Coronavirus — Saudi Arabia and Qatar, 2012. :

This virus has been identified in two patients, both previously healthy adults who suffered severe respiratory illness. The first patient, a man aged 60 years from Saudi Arabia, was hospitalized in June 2012 and died; the second patient, a man aged 49 years from Qatar with onset of symptoms in September 2012 was transported to the United Kingdom for intensive care. He remains hospitalized on life support with both pulmonary and renal failure. Person-to-person or health-care–associated transmission has not been identified to date Severe Respiratory Illness Associated with a Novel Coronavirus — Saudi Arabia and Qatar, 2012.

Coronavirus:

Virus classification Group: Group IV ((+) ssRNA ) Order: Nidovirales Family: Coronaviridae Subfamily: Coronavirinae Coronavirus

Diseases of coronavirus :

Coronaviruses primarily infect the upper respiratory and gastrointestinal tract of mammals and birds. Four to five different currently known strains of coronaviruses infect humans. The most publicized human coronavirus , SARS- CoV which causes SARS, has a unique pathogenesis because it causes both upper and lower respiratory tract infections and can also cause gastroenteritis. Diseases of coronavirus

Diseases of coronavirus:

Coronaviruses are believed to cause a significant percentage of all common colds in human adults. Coronaviruses cause colds in humans primarily in the winter and early spring seasons. The significance and economic impact of coronaviruses as causative agents of the common cold are hard to assess because, unlike rhinoviruses (another common cold virus), human coronaviruses are difficult to grow in the laboratory. Diseases of coronavirus

Diseases of coronavirus:

Coronaviruses also cause a range of diseases in farm animals and domestic pets, some of which can be serious and are a threat to the farming industry . Diseases of coronavirus

Severe acute respiratory syndrome:

In 2003, following the outbreak of Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) which had begun the prior year in Asia, and secondary cases elsewhere in the world, the World Health Organization issued a press release stating that a novel coronavirus identified by a number of laboratories was the causative agent for SARS. The virus was officially named the SARS coronavirus (SARS- CoV ). Severe acute respiratory syndrome The SARS epidemic resulted in over 8000 infections, about 10% of which resulted in death Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratoryhave begun to give hope of a vaccine against the disease

Recent discoveries of novel human coronaviruses.:

In September 2012, what is believed to be a new type of coronavirus , referred to as Novel Coronavirus 2012,being similar to SARS (but still apart from it, and also different from the common cold-causing coronavirus ) was discovered in Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Recent discoveries of novel human coronaviruses .

Recent discoveries of novel human coronaviruses.:

WHO has issued a global alert accordingly, to help countries strengthen health protection measures against the new virus. The WHO update on 28 September 2012 said that the virus did not seem to transmit easily from person to person. Recent discoveries of novel human coronaviruses .

What is Severe acute respiratory syndrome?:

SARS is a viral respiratory disease in humans which is caused by the SARS coronavirus (SARS- CoV ). Between November 2002 and July 2003, an outbreak of SARS in Hong Kong nearly became a pandemic, with 8,422 cases and 916 deaths worldwide(10.9% fatality) according to the WHO. Within weeks, SARS spread from Hong Kong to infect individuals in 37 countries in early 2003. What is Severe acute respiratory syndrome?

Severe acute respiratory syndrome:

The last infected human case of the outbreak occurred in June 2003, and there was a laboratory-induced infection case in 2004. SARS is not claimed to have been eradicated (unlike smallpox), as it may still be present in its natural host reservoirs (animal populations) and may return to the human population Severe acute respiratory syndrome During the outbreak the fatality of SARS was less than 1% for people aged 24 or younger, 6% for those 25 to 44, 15% for those 45 to 64, and more than 50% for those over 65

Signs and symptoms of SARS:

Initial symptoms are flu-like and may include: fever, myalgia , lethargys ymptoms , cough, sore throat and other nonspecific symptoms. The only symptom common to all patients appears to be a fever above 38 °C . Shortness of breath may occur later. The patient has symptoms as with a cold in the first stage, but later on they resemble influenza. Signs and symptoms of SARS

Diagnosis: SARS:

SARS may be suspected in a patient who has: Any of the symptoms, including a fever of 38 °C or higher, and Either a history of: Contact with someone with a diagnosis of SARS within the last 10 days OR Travel to any of the regions identified by the WHO as areas with recent local transmission of SARS (affected regions as of 10 May 2003were parts of China, Hong Kong, Singapore and the province of Ontario, Canada). Diagnosis: SARS

Diagnosis: SARS:

A probable case of SARS has the findings plus positive chest X-ray findings of atypical pneumonia or respiratory distress syndrome . Diagnosis: SARS WHO has added the category of "laboratory confirmed SARS" for patients who would otherwise fit the above "probable" category who do not (yet) have the chest X-ray changes, but do have positive laboratory diagnosis of SARS based on one of the approved tests (ELISA, immunofluorescence or PCR). White blood cell and platelet counts are often low . Early reports indicated a tendency to relative neutrophilia and a relative lymphopenia

Diagnosis:

PCR test that can detect genetic material of the SARS virus in specimens from blood, sputum, tissue samples and stools. The PCR tests so far have proven to be very specific, but not very sensitive. There is currently no rapid screening test for SARS and research is ongoing. Diagnosis

Treatment; SARS:

Antibiotics are ineffective, as SARS is a viral disease. Treatment of SARS so far has been largely supportive with antipyretics, supplemental oxygen and ventilation support as needed. Suspected cases of SARS must be isolated, preferably in negative pressure rooms, with complete barrier nursing precautions taken for any necessary contact with these patients. Treatment; SARS

Treatment: :

There was initially anecdotal support for steroids and the antiviral drug ribavirin , but no published evidence has supported this therapy. Researchers are currently testing all known antiviral treatments for other diseases, including AIDS, hepatitis, influenza and others of the SARS-causing coronavirus . Treatment: A 2006 systematic review of all the studies done on the 2003 SARS epidemic found no evidence that antivirals , steroids or other therapies helped patients. A few suggested they caused harm..

PowerPoint Presentation:

In December 2004, Chinese researchers were reported to have produced a SARS vaccine; it has been tested on a group of 36 volunteers, 24 of whom developed antibodies against the virus. Currently, there is no cure or protective vaccine for SARS. The identification and development of novel vaccines and medicines to treat SARS is a priority for governments and public health agencies around the world .

Prognosis: SARS:

Reports from China on some recovered SARS patients showed severe long-time sequelae exist. The most typical diseases include, among other things, pulmonary fibrosis, osteoporosis, and femoral necrosis , which have led to the complete loss of working ability or even self-care ability of these cases. Some of the post-SARS patients suffer from major depressive disorder. Prognosis: SARS

Jasakum-alllah khayran :

Jasakum-alllah khayran “When a lot of remedies are suggested for a disease, that means it can't be cured.”

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