Pyrexia of Unknown Origin..Dr. Sajid Mumtaz

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Fever: a blessing in disguise :

Fever: a blessing in disguise The Prophet(saw) said: “When a believer gets sick or feverish, it is like metal when put on fire, the bad is gone and the good remains.” [Al-Bayhaqi] He (saw) also describes the intensity of fever by saying: “Fever is coal from hell, get rid of it by using cold water.” [Ibn Maajah] The Prophet (saw) forbade the cursing of fever by saying: “Do not curse a fever because it abolishes sins like fire abolishes dirt from iron.” [Ibn Maajah]

PowerPoint Presentation:

Narrated 'Abdullah: I visited Allah's Apostle(saw) while he(saw) was suffering from a high fever. I said, "O Allah's Apostle! You have a high fever." He(saw) said, "Yes, I have as much fever as two men of you." I said, "Is it because you will have a double reward?" He said, "Yes, it is so. No Muslim is afflicted with any harm, even if it were the prick of a thorn, but that Allah expiates his sins because of that, as a tree sheds its leaves.

PYREXIA OF UNKNOWN ORIGIN (PUO/FUO) :

PYREXIA OF UNKNOWN ORIGIN (PUO/FUO) Dr. Sajid Mumtaz Sodhar

PRE-TEST:

PRE-TEST The commonest cause of PUO is: A common disease presenting in atypical way. A rare disease presenting in atypical way. A common disease presenting typically. A rare disease presenting typically.

PowerPoint Presentation:

The answer is ..A .. The commonest cause of PUO IS …Common disease presenting ATYPICALLY

Pyrexia of Unknown Origin Our Objectives :

Pyrexia of Unknown Origin Our Objectives Terminology Epidemiology and Etiology Diagnostic Approach Therapeutic Trials Outcome

Terminology :

Terminology Old Definition : Fever higher than 38.3 o C on several occasions. Duration of fever – 3 weeks Uncertain diagnosis after one week of study in hospital New Definition : Eliminated the in-hospital evaluation requirements → 3 outpatient visits, or 3 days in hospital. … Ambulatory as well as in hospital

Definition Expansion :

Definition Expansion Classical PUO Nosocomial PUO Neutropenic PUO HIV-Associated Transplant

Classical PUO This refers to the original classification by Petersdorf and Beeson:

Classical PUO This refers to the original classification by Petersdorf and Beeson I nfections (e.g. abscesses, endocarditis , tuberculosis , and complicated urinary tract infections ), N eoplasms (e.g. lymphomas , leukaemias ), C onnective tissue diseases (e.g. temporal arteritis and polymyalgia rheumatica , Still's disease , systemic lupus erythematosus , and rheumatoid arthritis ), Miscellaneous disorders (e.g. alcoholic hepatitis , granulomatous conditions), and Undiagnosed conditions

Nosocomial PUO:

Nosocomial PUO Nosocomial FUO refers to pyrexia in patients that have been admitted to hospital for at least 24 hours. This is commonly related to hospital associated factors such as, surgery, use of urinary catheter , intravascular devices (i.e. " drip ", pulmonary artery catheter ), drugs (antibiotics induced Clostridium difficile colitis, and drug fever ), immobilization (decubitus ulcers). Sinusitis in the intensive care unit is associated with nasogastric and orotracheal tubes. Other conditions that should be considered are deep-vein thrombophlebitis, and pulmonary embolism , transfusion reactions , acalculous cholecystitis, thyroiditis , alcohol/drug withdrawal, adrenal insufficiency , pancreatitis .

Immuno-defecient PUO:

Immuno-defecient PUO Immunodeficiency can be seen in patients receiving chemotherapy or in hematologic malignancies. Fever is concommittent with neutropenia ( neutrophil <500/uL) or impaired cell-mediated immunity. The lack of immune response masks a potentially dangerous course. Infection is the most common cause

Human-Immunodefeciecy Virus-associated PUO.:

Human-Immunodefeciecy Virus-associated PUO. HIV-infected patients are a subgroup of the immunodeficient FUO, and frequently have fever. The primary phase shows fever since it has a mononucleosis -like illness.

Epidemiology and Etiology:

Epidemiology and Etiology Infections 30 - 40 % Malignancies 20 – 25 % Collagen Vascular Disease 10 – 20 % Miscellaneous 15 – 20 % Undiagnosed 10 – 15 % Categories of Illness Causing PUO Pnemonic= I aM CMU

Epidemiology and Etiology:

Epidemiology and Etiology 1970 → up to date: Infection is the most frequent. 1930 → 70% undiagnosed PUO 2000 → 5-10% undiagnosed PUO Diagnostic Advances: Modify the spectrum of PUO causing diseases: Serology: HIV / Brucella / SLE Imaging Tech: Abscesses/Solid Tumor

Epidemiology and Etiology:

Epidemiology and Etiology Fever lasting > 1 yr: Infection } Decline in Malignancy } frequency

Pyrexia of Unknown Origin:

Pyrexia of Unknown Origin The majority of disease remaining after an initial NEGATIVE work-up are: Neoplasm Seronegative Collagen Vascular Disease Increasing Tuberculosis Increasing Drug Addition Elderly with Endocarditis HIV with or without infection or malignancy Implanted prosthetic devices Travel … New Exposure

The Age:

The Age Children → infection is the most frequent. EBV, CMV… others Elderly → Neoplasm & CT-Disorders Giant cell arteritis } > 50 yr (30%) Polymyalgia Rheumatica }

Geography:

Geography Malaria Saudi (malaria area)/Africa/Pakistan/India Brucella Saudi/Gulf Area Kala-Azar Yemen/Jazan/Sudan/India Leprosy Yemen/Najran… Typhoid India/Pakistan/Egypt/Indonesia Histoplasmosis USA … (West Coast) N.B.: Ease of Travel → Infection → All parts of the world. Tuberculosis All over the world. Liver Abscess AIDS

Neutropenia:

Neutropenia Fever without source → Bacteremia. Fever lasts > 7 days → Fungal Infection. Fever is usually co-founding: Underlying disease Drugs Blood Products Allograft rejection

Neutropenia:

Neutropenia Fever if unexplained → abates with return of neutrophil. Fever if persists → Systemic fungal infection.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Time has come to not beg from army of saitin/lucifer

Etiologies of PUO:

Etiologies of PUO Infection: Three major causes Abscess .. especially occult .. Intracellular organisms. (salmonella mycobacterium, brucella) Intravascular … SBE

Etiologies of PUO:

Etiologies of PUO Infection Tuberculosis: .. Disseminated The single most common infection in most PUO series except in children and elderly. Usually extrapulmonary or military, or Occurs in the lungs and significant pre-existing lung disease. Pulmonary TB in AIDS is often subtle (normal chest x-rays → 15 – 30%). PPD is (+ve) < 50% of TB with PUO. Diagnosis often requires Bx of LN/Liver/Bone marrow. Sputum smear (+) only 25%

Etiologies of PUO:

Etiologies of PUO Abscess: Usually located in abdomen or pelvis. Secondary to appendicitis or diverticulitis. Pyogenic liver abscess usually follow biliary tract dis./abd. Suppuration. Amoebic liver abscess is similar to pyogenic → amoebic serology is positive > 95% of cases. Splenic abscess is usually secondary to hematogenous seeding. Perinephric or renal abscess is usually secondary to UTI.

Etiologies of PUO:

Etiologies of PUO Bacterial Endocarditis Culture remains negative in 5% of patient. Culture negative is likely with the following organisms: Coxiella burnetii → no growth. HACEK group → incubate blood 7 – 21 days Brucella } Special media/ Legionelle } long time Mycoplasm/Chlamydia } Fungal → usually sterile Peripheral signs may not be detected. Right-side Endocarditis → Lack murmurs → self antibiotics → growth (-ve).

Etiologies of PUO:

Etiologies of PUO Malignancy Lymphoma … Fever is a presenting feature Leukemia … M. Myeloma (fever means infection) Renal cell carcinoma … only rarely fever in there HCC or secondary metastasis to the liver

Etiologies of PUO:

Etiologies of PUO Lymphoma: Fever is a well-recognized manifestation. A Pel-Ebstein phenomenon is rare. Source of fever → production of cytokines. Fever is a negative prognostic factor … Renal Cell Carcinoma (Adult) 20% → Fever Microscopic hematuria/Erythromytosis

Etiologies of PUO:

Etiologies of PUO Wilms Tumor (Children) Peak incidence 2-3 years. Abdominal mass but FEVER can be a presentation. Solid Tumor Fever is rare except: Secondary metastasis to the liver Ductal obstruction or perforation … like cholangioacarcinoma or ampulla ca. Lung carcinoma with obstruction and pneumonia.

Etiologies of PUO:

Etiologies of PUO Collagen-Vascular-Disease No diagnostic serology… You need to recognize the syndrome otherwise no diagnosis Still’s disease (young or adult) Giant cell arteritis } → 15% of PUO Polymyalgia Rheumatica } Behcet’s Disease Relapsing polychondritis

Etiologies of PUO:

Etiologies of PUO Still’s Disease Adult Onset Age 16 – 33 % with (-ve) RF & ANA Fever is Chx high and spiking with Temp. up to 41.6 o C … hectic Fever is either intermittent or remittent … peaks typically at night Most patient seek medical attention within 2 weeks. A distinctive evanescent macular or M. popular rash is typically present during the course of the illness.

Etiologies of PUO:

Etiologies of PUO Dx is strictly a clinical one … RF is almost uniformally negative. Other features → myalgias, arthritis may appear after weeks or months & leukocytosis (neutrophils), hepatosplenomegaly & lymphadenopathy. Very high serum ferritin … more than 2000

Etiologies of PUO:

Etiologies of PUO Temporal Arteritis: Very serious condition if not diagnosed early … Very difficult to establish the etiology of fever if you do not have the index of suspicion Typically Caucasian but it occurs in others Fever and malaise may be the only manifestation. Headache is the most common.

Etiologies of PUO:

Etiologies of PUO Careful Questioning → jaw claudication or visual loss. If there is unexplained fever, anaemia and high ESR in an elderly without an obvious cause … Unilateral vs. bilateral bx … short vs long segment .. Treat for 2 years ..

Etiologies of PUO:

Etiologies of PUO Polymyalgia Rheumatica: Can cause fever, arthralgia, myalgia & ↑ ESR > 50. Chx. Muscle complaints → symmetrical pain and stiffness that are typically worse at AM and affects lumbar spine and large proximal m. Other vasculitides that cause PUO: Polyarteritis nodosa → Mononeuritis multiplex (60%) Wegener’s Granulomatosis Mixed Cryoglobulinemia

Etiologies of PUO:

Etiologies of PUO Miscellaneous Causes: (Non-Infectious) Vascular Causes: Pulmonary Emboli 50% are febrile Fever is chx. < 39 o C Patient typically has predisposing factors → cancer or recent immobility. Hematoma in closed space When it cause PUO → usually arise from hemorrhage in the retroperitoneal space or within the wall of an aneurysm or dissection of the thoracic or abdominal aorta.

Etiologies of PUO:

Etiologies of PUO Hyperthyroidism Occasionally cause PUO → most frequently diagnosed clinically. Often accompanied by weight loss. No local neck pain and typically enlarged non-tender thyroid.

Etiologies of PUO:

Etiologies of PUO Adrenal Insufficiency Rare, potentially fatal, but eminently treatable cause of PUO. Consider Dx if there is: Nausea, vomiting, weight loss, ↓ BP, ↓ Na & ↑ K.

Etiologies of PUO:

Etiologies of PUO Familial Mediterranean Fever Ask the patient about the disease in Arabic Recurrent fever Arthritis pain out of proportional to signs Polyserositis (peritonitis … may be pleuritis) Leukocytosis Affect mainly Arabs Not always hereditary

Etiologies of PUO:

Etiologies of PUO Alcoholic Hepatitis Often unsuspected → pt. deny Fever is usually low grade < 38.5 o C May have jaundice and hepatomegaly. AST ↑ > ALT 2:1 AST < 500 Leukocytosis is often there. If you do not think about it in the right time and with the right patient … then you will be troubled and will work a lot in order to get the etiology.

Etiologies of PUO:

Etiologies of PUO Factitious Fever Febrile PUO In one study … 9% of cases of PUO False fever: thermometer manipulation using external heat or substitute thermometer. Men use this way … physician are rare for this disorder. Increasing somewhat in elderly … 115 … 116 … Genuine fever (self induced) Administration of pyrogenic substances (bacterial suspensions) Generally young women with connection to health care … often NURSES.

Drug Fever:

Drug Fever Almost any drug can cause fever

PowerPoint Presentation:

American/Western fever, Rx: Shame on us Cricket fever/Foot ball fever Pak/India/England & else ever Rx: Allah swt will ask, where we ‘ve spent our time Kids fever, Rx:Duty of parents Let’s Quick Look At Some Strange Psyche Fever Of The Today’s World.. But in this fever! Body temp: is normal Adult Fever:Watching sports,movies,news, talk shows,etc Rx: Bring back to religion

PowerPoint Presentation:

PART 2 DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT

Diagnostic Approach:

Diagnostic Approach Careful History Physical Examination (repeated) Diagnostic Testing

History:

History Verify the presence of fever: Series of 347 patients → for prolonged fever → 35% were ultimately: a. No fever b. Factitious Fever Duration of Fever: The longer the duration → the less likely to have infection and malignancy.

History:

History Travel: Travel to an area known to be endemic for certain disease: Name of the area, duration of stay Onset of illness … (incubation period) 1 – 10 Days 10 – 21 Days Weeks - Months Malaria Malaria Kala Azar Plague Typhoid Amoebiasis Dengue Brucella HIV Salmonella Hepatitis A Hepatitis

History:

History Drug and Toxin History: Drug-induced fever … almost all drug can cause drug fever … Antihistamine/beta lactam/hepatrin/coumarin/anti-TB … Salicylates and other NSAID … Alcohol Intake (regular use)

History:

History Localizing Symptoms: May Indicate the source of fever: Back Pain TB Spondylitis Bone Metastasis Headache Chronic Meningitis/GCA RUQ Pain Liver Abscess LUQ Pain Splenic Abscess Oral & Genital Ulcer Behcet’s Disease Jaw Claudication Temporal Arteritis Subtle changes in behavior Granulomatous Meningitis

History:

History Family History: Scrutinized for possible infectious or hereditary disorders Tuberculosis FMF Past Medical Condition: Lymphoma → may recur Rheumatic Fever → may recur Still’s Disease → may recur Behcet’s Disease → may recur Exposure to sexual partner … Acute HIV Illicit drug abuse (IV) … infective endocarditis, Hepatitis … HIV

Physical Examination:

Physical Examination ….. Looking for the KEY physical sign …. Diagnostic yield 60% in children (50%repeated) Document the Fever: Significant and persistent for more than ONE occasion. Analyzing the Pattern: Neither specific Nor sensitive enough to be considered diagnostic … EXCEPT Tertian & Quarter Pattern → Malaria Pel-Ebstein Pattern → Lymphoma/ Tuberculosis Pulse-Temp Dissociation → Typhoid/ Brucellosis

Pattern of Fever:

Pattern of Fever

Physical Examination:

Physical Examination Examine for Lymphadenopathy Site → Cervical Area 1. Lymphoma (Localized) 2. Tuberculosis 3. Infectious Mononucleosis 4. ******************** 5. Lymphadenitis (bacterial) Supraclavicular lymphadenopathy: Highest risk of malignancy: Patient > 40 yr → 90% Patient < 40 yr → 25%

Case …Let’s activate ur neuron:

Case …Let’s activate ur neuron 32 year old woman with one month history of righ post neck mass with fever and malaise … received 10 days antibiotic but no response … EXAM …: T = 38.4 … several lymph node in the neck … non-tender and rubbery … LAB …: WBC = 2000 … ESR = 42 … CT scan … paratracheal LN … all other lab result and tuberculin test –ve What is next…?

Histopathology of the LN:

Histopathology of the LN Intact Capsule Discrete Area of Necrosis Many Histocytes are Present No Plasma or Neutrophil Cells No Follicular Hyperplasia No Granuloma What is the diagnosis?

Kikuchi’s Disease (3 cases registered in Riyadh, KSA and sporadic cases registered in different parts of the world):

Kikuchi’s Disease (3 cases registered in Riyadh, KSA and sporadic cases registered in different parts of the world) * Histocytic Necrotizing Lymphadenitis * Benign, rare and self limiting Young asian female Cervical lymph node with fever Leukopenia … 50% Leukocytosis 5% Diagnosis is by typical histopathology …: Expert and familiar one with the disease Histocytes and necrosis with NO plasma or neutrophil cells

Physical Examination :

Physical Examination Examine for Lymphadenopathy Paraumblinical hernia → abdomen or pelvis neoplasm. Generalized → look for hepatomegaly & splenomegaly → indicate significant systemic disease 1. Lymphoma 2. Lymphocytic – Leukemia 3. Infectious mononucleosis Painful gland Inflammatory process or suppuration +++ Hemorrhage into the necrotic center of a malignant node.

Physical Examination:

Physical Examination Consistency Stony hard node → cancer & usually metastasis Firm & rubbery → Lymphoma Soft & fluctuant → infection & Tuberculosis Matting Benign: Tuberculosis/Sarcoid Malignant: Metastatic Carcinoma/Lymphoma Examine the thyroid and look for peripheral signs of thyrotoxicosis

Physical Examination:

Physical Examination Examine the Skin: Rash: SLE ….. All types of rashes is described Still’s Disease Evanescent erythematous rash over the trunk Infectious Mononucleosis … macular rash Infective Endocarditis (Janeway’s lesion) Typhoid Fever … rose spots over abdomen Osler’s Nodes: Painful nodule on the pads of toes & fingers → Infective Endocarditis

PowerPoint Presentation:

Embolic Skin Lesions … Janeway Lesion Conjunctival petechiae in a patient with bacterial endocarditis

PowerPoint Presentation:

Catch scretch fever- SLE- RMSFever

Physical Examination:

Physical Examination Examine for Oral Ulcer SLE Behcet’s Syndrome Examine for Arthritis Examine the Fundus Roth’s spots (white-centered haemorrhage) → Infective Endocarditis Yellowish-white choroidal lesion → Tuberculosis Choriodoretinitis → Active Toxo or CMV in HIV patient.

Physical Examination:

Physical Examination New or Changing Murmur Temporal Artery … nodular, weakly pusatible Sinus Tenderness Tender Tooth Thyroid Enlargement or Tenderness Calf Tenderness Nails: splinter haemorrhage, clubbing

Diagnostic Testing:

Diagnostic Testing Blind application leads to excessive noof tests … Complete Blood Count Anemia if present → suggest a serious underlying disease Leukocytosis with bands → occult bacterial infection Lymphocytosis & atypical Lymphocyte → Infectious mononucleosis Leucopenia and Lymphopenia → advanced HIV Leukoerythroblastic Anemia → Disseminated TB Thrombocytopenia → Malaria/Leukemia Peripheral Blood → Malaria

Diagnostic Testing:

Diagnostic Testing Urinalysis, Urine Culture, U/E, LFT ESR If elevated → significant inflammatory process Greatest use in establishing a serious underlying disease, esp. if v. high → ESR > 100 mm/h … Tuberculosis … m myeloma … temporal arteritis

Diagnostic Testing:

Diagnostic Testing 58% → malignancy → Lymphoma/myeloma 25% Infection – Endocarditis Giant cell arteritis ↑ High ESR → lacks specificity: Drug Reaction } Thrombophlebitis } may cause very high ESR Nephrotic Syndrome } Normal ESR → significant inflammatory process is absent with exception.

Diagnostic Testing:

Diagnostic Testing CRP-closely associated with inflammatory process Not invariable components of the febrile response. Usually does not go up with viral infection. * ESR & CRP is elevated in: Bacterial Infection Neoplasm Immunological-mediated inflammatory states Tissue infarction

Diagnostic Testing:

Diagnostic Testing Acute Phase Proteins Proteins Increased Proteins Decreased Fibronogen Albumin Ferritin Transferrin Plasminogen Alpha- Fetoprotein Protein S Ceruloplasmin New England J Med. 1211, 340.448-454

Diagnostic Testing:

Diagnostic Testing Blood Testing Anti-nuclear Antibodies Rheumatoid Factor CMV Antibody … IgM Heterophile Antibody Test in children and young adult Tuberculin Skin Test … 5 unit ID Thyroid Function Test HIV Screening

Diagnostic Testing:

Diagnostic Testing Cultures Blood Obtain more than 3 blood cultures from separate venipunctures over 24 hr period if you are suspecting inf. Endocarditis prior antimicrobial use. Incubate the blood for 4 weeks, to detect the presence of SBE & Brucellosis Sputum: For Tuberculosis Any normal sterile: CSF/urine/pleural or peritoneal fluid Bone marrow aspirate → Tuberculosis/Brucellosis Lymph node Bx → TB

Diagnostic Testing:

Diagnostic Testing Imaging Studies: … to localize abnormalities for definite tests or treatment Chest x-ray: Military shadows → disseminated tuberculosis Atelectasis } 1. Liver ↑ Hemi diaphragm } Abscess 2. Spleen Pleural Effusion } 3. Pancreatic 4. Subphrenic Mediastinal mass → Lymphoma/Tuberculosis/ Sarcoid If CXR is (N) → Repeat on weekly basis

Diagnostic Testing:

Diagnostic Testing CT-Scan → CT scan chest Mediastinal mass → Tuberculosis/Lymphoma/ Sarcoidosis Dorsal Spine → Spondylitis and disc space disease CT-Scan Abdomen → very effective to visualize All types of abscesses Retroperitoneal tumor, lymph node or haematoma MRI: spleen, lymph node and the brain

Diagnostic Testing:

Diagnostic Testing Serology Test Brucella Titer CMV & EBV antibody test HIV testing (Elisa screening) ANF Radionuclear Scanning Bone TC-scan → osteomyelitis (skeletal) Gallium scan → occult inflammation Indium labeled WBC-scan → occult abscesses

Diagnostic Testing:

Diagnostic Testing Radionuclear Scanning Overall Assessment: Non-specific tests to localize a site for more specific evaluation (such as CT-scan) Impressive no. of false (+) and false (-) results True positive scan only indicates an area of increased uptake → no anatomic detail

Gallium Scan:

Gallium Scan Will be hot if there is: Increased blood flow Uptake by bacteria (lactoferrin) Update by WBC Sensitive but not specific Not good for abdomen or pelvis .. False +ve Effective in: Chronic Infection Lymphoma

Indium-Labelled Leukocyte:

Indium-Labelled Leukocyte Uptake by WBC Only for acute problem .. less than 4 weeks Study at UK has found the sensitivity for infective PUO: 25% and specificity was 100% Not sensitive enough Recommended for strongly suspected infective PUO if done within the 1 st 2-4 weeks False positive … post op wound … mastitis The British Journal of Radiology, 70 (1997), 918-922.

Diagnostic Testing:

Diagnostic Testing Laparoscopy To visualize and biopsy the pathology in the abdomen suggestive of: e.g. Tuberculous peritonitis Peritoneal carcinomatosis Biopsy Enlarged lymph node Granulomatous disease (Tuberculosis) Metastatic carcinoma Others

Diagnostic Testing:

Diagnostic Testing Hepatomegaly or Abnormal LFT Hepatic Granuloma Non-caseating: Tuberculosis/Sarcoidosis & Brucellosis Caseating: Tuberculosis Bone Marrow Granuloma ± Tubercle Bacilli → Tuberculosis Aplastic Cells → Leukemia Leishmania Bodies → Kala-Azar Atypical Cells → Lymphoma Atypical Plasma Cells → M. myeloma Temporal Artery → Giant Cell Arteritis Pleural or Pericardial → Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis

Therapeutic Trials:

Therapeutic Trials Limitation and risk of empirical therapeutic trials: Rarely specific Underlying disease may remit spontaneously false impression of success. Disease may respond partially and this may lead to delay in specific diagnosis. Side effect of the drugs can be misleading.

Therapeutic Trials:

Therapeutic Trials What is the best therapy for PUO patient? To hold therapeutic trials in the early stage… except in: Patient who is very sick to wait. All tests have failed to uncover the etiology.

Therapeutic Trials:

Therapeutic Trials Antimicrobial Trials: Expected to suppress, but not cure, an infectious process such as abscess → may have false feeling of response. Failure to have quick response → does not mean wrong diagnosis: Endocarditis Pelvic inflam. Disease Typhoid Fever

Therapeutic Trials:

Therapeutic Trials Empiric Drug: Tuberculosis Culture-negative Endocarditis Vasculitis … Temporal Arteritis Pulmonary Emboli

Therapeutic Trials:

Therapeutic Trials Empiric drug trial for suspected T.B.: Presence of granuloma on Bx before culture result. Elderly or immunocompromised patient with (+ve) TB skin test and deteriorating clinical condition. No drug for stable patient without any suggestive features laboratory result.

Therapeutic Trials:

Therapeutic Trials Empiric drug trial for suspected culture (-ve) Endocarditis: Patient with new or changing murmur or peripheral signs of endocarditis. Vancomycin or ampicillin + Gentamycin, may be used.

Therapeutic Trials:

Therapeutic Trials Empiric drug trials for suspected Vasculitis: Elderly with weight loss and any symptoms suggestive (headache, visual disturbance, jaw claudication) and ↑ ESR > 50 mm/hr → Prednisolone 60 PO Patient above 50 yrs who is c/o muscle pain and stiffness around hip and shoulder with ↑ ESR → Prednisolone 20 mg PO OD Dramatic response is enough to establish the DX.

Prognosis :

Prognosis It depends on: Cause of fever Nature of the underlying disease(s) BUT .. Generally poor in: Elderly Neoplasm Diagnostic delay has adverse effect in: Intra Abdominal Infection Miliary Tuberculosis Recurrent Pulmonary Emboli Disseminated Fungal Infection Temporal Arteritis Arnow PM. Fever of Unknown Origin. Lancet, 1210; 350:575-580

Outcome:

Outcome If the cause of fever remains elusive → repeat history and examination. 5 – 15% of cases → The diagnosis remain obscure. However, most of these patients defervesce without treatment → no disease later.

Prognosis:

Prognosis Undiagnosed PUO patient generally have favorable outcome. Recovery in 4 weeks time … 80% Recovery in 2 years time … 90% Require NSAIDS or steroid … 10% Mortality rate 5 years after discharge 3%

THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION:

THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah's Apostle (saw) said, "If Allah wants to do good to somebody, He afflicts him with trials."

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