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Julia Lika Garcia. “Government is too big and too important to be left to the politicians” Chester Bowles : “Government is too big and too important to be left to the politicians” Chester Bowles Government is really important to our society, it has the biggest role in our economy that’s why we need to choose the right leader to lead us in a way that our country will improve and the citizens of our country to have a better life. Government and Law : Government and Law Sociology of Politics : Sociology of Politics Politics is the theory, art, and practice of government. Political institutions are the social arrangements for legislating and enforcing of laws and providing social services like education, health and welfare, funds, taxes, etc. which consist of a relatively stable cluster of norms, statuses and rules that are involved in the acquisition and exercise of power and decision making. The institution that sets social norms and values as to who will posses ”the monopoly of legitimate use of physical force within a given territory and how that power is acquired and maintained how the power is organized and exercised comprise what is the state. State and Political System : State and Political System The concept of the state as distinct from society develop gradually. The need for the state arose when groups within society realized that it was for their welfare to centralize authority, set up rules for settling disputes and apply force to maintain obedience and loyalty to the society norms and values of society. Ideology – a system of values, ideas , beliefs , and attitudes that a society or groups within it share and accept as fact; it contains a set of attitudes towards the various institutions and processes of society. The forms of government envisioned by different political ideologies are autocracy, oligarchy, and democracy. There are also other political ideologies that have presented alternative views of the state, these are socialism, fascism, modern totalitarianism, and social democracy. These major political ideologies are still undergoing modification or reinterpretations, but what ever the scheme of the states its parts interrelate with each other as the states relates to other institutions. Function of State : Function of State The main function of the state are the maintenance of peace and order and the regulation and control of the lives of the people. The increased complexity of society has caused the transfer of some institutional functions to the state 1. From the Family 2. From the Economy 3. From the Church The Social Structure of Politics : The Social Structure of Politics The state is the formal structure of government. It is the institutions whose functions are carried out by the government. When the sense of unity that arises becomes intense, even among a people with deep cleavage due to lack of cultural uniformity, there will be a reason to consider themselves distinct from all others whom they designated a foreigners. Nationalism - which is ideology behind the nation state. - has played a significant part in modern history . - implies the individual identification with the nation, culture, interest , and goals. The Struggle for Power: Legitimacy and Authority : The Struggle for Power: Legitimacy and Authority Political power is a basic force in the political process and in structuring society. Weber defined power as “ the probability that one actor within a social relationship will be in a position to carry out his own will despite resistance”. When the power is held by an individual or a group not acceptable to members of society, the power is illegal and illegitimate. Power becomes legitimate authority when members of society accept its use as right and proper. The struggle for power includes the acquisition, exercise and maintenance of power. In monarchy, power is inherent in the ruler by the divine right and in democracy, power is vested on the masses who, in turn, delegate this power to those whom they elect to represent them in the government; such power is exercised primarily for the peoples welfare. Structure and Function of Philippine Politics : Structure and Function of Philippine Politics Before, there were tribes which are rule by absolute monarchies called baranggay. Each baranggay was ruled by either a datu or rajah. These ruler were in conflict over territorial rights, privileges, duties and responsibilities. Spanish colonization started the unification, centralization, and nationalization except for Muslims and the Philippine revolution started then the Spain and U.S signed the treaty of Paris, ceding Spain's control of the Philippines to the U.S. The Philippine revolutionaries continued to fight but not long were defeated. Commonwealth government and Japanese government operates simultaneously. Filipino's sought the policy of local autonomy when the Philippine gained political independence after world war II. The Basis of Power in Philippine Politics : The Basis of Power in Philippine Politics 1907- only 3% of Philippine population were qualified voters. 1939- voting requirements were liberalized and illegibility was made based on age, citizenship, residence, and literacy. After World War II- in the Magsaysay presidency the rural masses ushered wholesale into electoral list. 1946- 1961- the electoral list swelled from 2.3 million to 6.4 million. 1953-1961- the voters from the cities doubled. 1967- local and national elections, 81.66% of 9, 744, 604 registered voted. Political Counseling- cities and publications were consulted on political, legal, and other technical matters by voters. Patronage- straight buying and selling of votes operate with network of personalized reciprocity. Molding of Public Opinion- effort provide more scientific public opinion. Making, Interpreting and Enforcing Laws : Making, Interpreting and Enforcing Laws Legal, Quasi-legal, and extra legal forces have completed and conflicted in the making, interpreting and enforcing of laws in the Philippines. Political transition from dictatorship is difficult because democratic processes are usually slow, cumbersome and diverted noisy. After World War II- adaptation of two-party system from uni-party system brought about political competition and the taking of terms in the power structure . Religious Blocks particularly the Iglesia ni Cristo, played significant rules. Philippine politics have been muddled with violence and dynastic bossism, and tainted with money from gambling and drug lords and corrupt officials. Power Beyond the Law : Power Beyond the Law People Power- does not exist in sociological and political theory. People Power is defined as a large gathering of an armed people united by a set of political calls. It is amorphous and follows no definite time-table, no formal organization or leadership and no direction. Corruption- is a malady afflicting both developing and developed countries. Terrorism : Terrorism Terrorism- may be defined as acts of violence or the treat of violence employed by an individual or group as a political strategy. April 1995- first brought home to the U.S the deadly nature of terrorism. September 11, 2001- 4 passenger jets were hijacked. Shiri-tori : Shiri-tori Mechanics: Someone will gives a word and asks a student to spell it, and then student should say a word beginning with the last letter of the word given. The game continues until someone makes a mistake, it is , to pronounce the word incorrectly, misspell it or come up with the word has been said already, then he or she is out. The last one remaining in the game is the winner. 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