EDUCATION IN INDIA

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A BRIEF IDEA AND HIGHLIGHT OF THE EDUCATION SYSTEM IN INDIA STARTING FROM PAST TO PRESENT.

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IT IS ALSO KNOWN AS:Aryavart, Bharat-Varsh, Bharat, Hindustan, Bharatiya Gan-rajya...,:

IT IS ALSO KNOWN AS:Aryavart , Bharat- Varsh , Bharat, Hindustan, Bharatiya Gan-rajya ..., OUR COUNTER IS CALLED INDIA.

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India is the largest democracy in the world. Varanasi is believed to be the oldest city in the world that is inhabited till today. The Number System was invented in India. The first university in the world was established in Takshashila, India in the year 700BC. Sanskrit is known as the mother of all European languages. The Vedas was written in 1400 BC The Upanishads, was written between 800-600 BC

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Ayurveda is the earliest school of medicine known to the world and ' charaka ' is known as the father of Ayurveda . He developed this system some 2500 years back. Nalanda University, built in 4 AD, was considered to be the honor of ancient Indian system of education as it was one of the best Universities of its time in the subcontinent.

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The decimal and place value system were developed in India in 100 BC. The famous Pythagorean Theorem was discovered in India in the 6th century by Budhayana , much before the European mathematicians. India is home to the second largest pool of software developers only after the U.S.

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In ancient times, India had the Gurukula system of education in which anyone who wished to study went to a teacher's (Guru) house and requested to be taught. If accepted as a student by the guru, he would then stay at the guru's place and help in all activities at home.

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The education system involved of three basic processes, which included ' Sravana ', ' Manana ' and ' Nidhyasana '. In the ' Sravana ' stage of education, students received ' shrutis ' knowledge, which was passed orally from one generation to another. The second stage was ' Manana ' which means that pupils had to think themselves about what they have heard. They have to make their own inferences and assimilate the lesson taught by their teacher into the life. The third stage ' Nidhyasana ' means complete comprehension of truth and its use in the life. In ancient India women were given the equal right to education and teaching. Women seers like ' Gayatri ' were prominent participants in educational debates

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The present educational system of India is an implantation of British rulers. Wood's Dispatch of 1854 laid the foundation of present system of education in India.

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Education in India is provided by the public sector as well as the private sector , with control and funding coming from three levels: central , state , and local . It falls under the control of both the Union Government and the states

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India happens to be the largest English speaking country in the world. India is home to the second largest pool of Engineers and Scientists in the World.

10+2+3 pattern :

10+2+3 pattern The central and most state boards uniformly follows the "10+2+3" pattern of education. In this pattern, 10 years of primary and secondary education is followed by 2 years of higher secondary (usually in schools having the higher secondary facility, or in colleges), and then 3 years of college education for bachelor's degree. The 10 years is further divided into 5 years of primary education and 3 years of upper primary, followed by 2 years of high school.

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Primary education The Indian government lays emphasis to primary education up to the age of fourteen years (referred to as Elementary Education in India. [27] ) The Indian government has also banned child labour in order to ensure that the children do not enter unsafe working conditions. [

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Till 2011 there were 5,816,673 elementary school teachers in India. As of March 2012 there were 2,127,000 secondary school teachers in India. Education has also been made free for children for 6 to 14 years of age or up to class VIII under the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act 2009.

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Secondary education covers children 14–18 which covers 88.5 million children according to the Census, 2001. However, enrolment figures show that only 31 million of these children were attending schools in 2001–02, which means that two-third of the population remained out of school. [40] A significant feature of India's secondary school system is the emphasis on inclusion of the disadvantaged sections of the society. Professionals from established institutes are often called to support in vocational training. Another feature of India's secondary school system is its emphasis on profession based vocational training to help students attain skills for finding a vocation of his/her choosing. [41] A significant new feature has been the extension of SSA to secondary education in the form of the Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan [42] A special Integrated Education for Disabled Children (IEDC) programme was started in 1974 with a focus on primary education. [20] but which was converted into Inclusive Education at Secondary Stage [43] Another notable special programme , the Kendriya Vidyalaya project, was started for the employees of the central government of India, who are distributed throughout the country. The government started the Kendriya Vidyalaya project in 1965 to provide uniform education in institutions following the same syllabus at the same pace regardless of the location to which the employee's family has been transferred. [20]

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Elementary Education According to the Constitution of India, elementary education is a fundamental right of children in the age group of 6-14 years. India has about 688,000 primary schools and 110,000 secondary schools. According to statistics two third of school going age children of India are enrolled in schools but the figures are deceptive as many don't attend schools regularly. At least half of all students from rural area drop out before completing school. The government has rolled out many plans to increase the percentage of elementary education. The plans such as ' Sarva Siksha Abhiyan (SSA), District Primary Education Program (DPEP), Operation Blackboard, Mid Day Meal have been successful to great extent.

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District Primary Education Program This program was launched in 1994 with the objective of universalization of primary education. Its main features are Universal Access, Universal Retention and Universal Achievement. It aims that the primary education should be accessible to each and every child of school going age, once a child is enrolled in school he/ she should be retained there. The final step is achievement of the goal of education. The main components of this program are: Construction of classrooms and new schools Opening of non-formal schooling centers Setting up early childhood education centers. Appointment of teachers. Providing education to disabled children.

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Operation Blackboard It was started in 1987-88. The aim of this program is to improve human and physical resource availability in primary schools of India. According to this program every primary school should have at least two rooms, two teachers and essential teaching aids like blackboard, chalk, duster etc.

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Secondary Education The enrollment at secondary school throughout the country was close to 28 million in 1998-99. Efforts are being made to increase this figure through the implementation of proposed new educational strategies

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India's higher education system is the third largest in the world, after China and the United States . [46] The main governing body at the tertiary level is the University Grants Commission (India) , which enforces its standards, advises the government, and helps coordinate between the centre and the state. [47] Accreditation for higher learning is overseen by 12 autonomous institutions established by the University Grants Commission . [48] In India, education system is reformed. In future, India will be one of the largest education hub. Some institutions of India, such as the Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), have been globally acclaimed for their standard of undergraduate education in engineering. [50] The IITs enroll about 10,000 students annually and the alumni have contributed to both the growth of the private sector and the public sectors of India. [51] However the IIT's have not had significant impact on fundamental scientific research and innovation. Several other institutes of fundamental research such as the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science (IACS), Indian Institute of Science IISC), Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Harishchandra Research Institute (HRI), are acclaimed for their standard of research in basic sciences and mathematics. However, India has failed to produce world class universities both in the private sector or the public sector. [52]

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University Education This massive system of higher education in India constitutes of 342 universities (211 State, 18 Central, 95 deemed universities) 13 institutes of national importance, 17,000 colleges and 887 polytechnics. University Grant Commission (UGC), a national body, coordinates and looks after the maintenance of standard of university education in India. The university education in India starts with undergraduate courses. Depending upon the nature of course pursued its duration may vary from three to five and a half years.

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Academic Degree Course This undergraduate course in India is of three years' duration. After completing this course student get a Bachelor's degree in the subject studied such as Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Commerce or Bachelor of Science. Professional Course There are large numbers of professional courses at the undergraduate level. Student may opt for any of it depending upon their interest and condition of eligibility.

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Medical Courses This course at undergraduate level is known as MBBS (Bachelor of Medicine Bachelor of Surgery). It is of four and a half year's duration plus one year of obligatory internship. Various medical colleges conduct entrance examination for admission to this course. An all India level examination is also conducted by CBSE for admission to colleges all over India based over 15% reserved seats.

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The important medical colleges of India are: All India Institute of Medical Science (AIIMS), New Delhi Air Force Medical College (AFMC), Pune Christian Medical College (CMC), Ludhiana Christian Medical College (CMC), Vellore Grants Medical College, Mumbai Institute of Medical Science (BHU), Varanasi

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Engineering Course The bachelor of Engineering (BE) or bachelor of Technology (B Tech) is a four-year course. It has wide range of options. Some of them are: Aeronautical and Aerospace engineering Agriculture engineering Computer engineering Electronic and electrical engineering Industrial engineering Marine engineering Mining engineering

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Engineering Course The bachelor of Engineering (BE) or bachelor of Technology (B Tech) is a four-year course. It has wide range of options. Some of them are: Aeronautical and Aerospace engineering Agriculture engineering Computer engineering Electronic and electrical engineering Industrial engineering Marine engineering Mining engineering

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Distance Education in India Indian Education system offers distance education to those who cannot join regular schools or colleges.

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The Indira Gandhi National Open University ,New Delhi is a distance learning national university ,established in 1985. IGNOU, the largest university in the world with 3,500,000 students; AIM: to impart education by means of distance and open education , provide higher education opportunities particularly to the disadvantaged segments of society.

Education Policy Reformations being implemented:

Education Policy Reformations being implemented Development of International cooperation and peaceful coexistence through education. Promotion of equality. It could be achieved by providing equal access and equal condition of success to children. A common educational structure (10+2+3) for the whole of India. Education for women's equality. The Indian education should be used as a tool to change the status of women in the society. Equalization of SC population with others in the matter of education. This is ensured by giving incentives to parents who send their children to schools, providing scholarship to SC students for higher studies, reservation of seats in institution of higher studies in India, recruitment of SC teachers. Opening of primary schools in tribal area for promotion of education in ST people. Development of curriculum and study material in the language of tribal people. Emphasis on the education of minorities. Adult education - Initiation of National Literacy Mission, for teaching illiterate people of age group 15-35.

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Increasing the scope of Operation Blackboard for upliftment of standard of primary education in India. Redesigning of courses of higher education to meet the increasing demand of professionalism. Providing enhanced support to the research work in Universities. Efforts to relate ancient Indian knowledge with the contemporary reality. Setting up of Open Universities and Distance Learning centers to promote the goal of education as a life long process. A combined perspective of technical and management education. Exposure to computers and computer training to be the part of professional education.

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Multiple task performance for teachers such as teaching, research, development of learning resource material, extension and management of the institution. Providing teachers a better deal to make education system in India work in proper way, as teachers are the backbone of the system. Providing better facilities to institutions and improved services to students. Measures to be taken for easy accessibility of books at minimum costs to all sections of students. Strengthening of science education for the development of spirit of inquiry and objectivity in the minds of students. The purpose of examination to be to bring about qualitative improvement in education. It should discourage simple memorization. Methods of teacher recruitment to be recognized one to ensure merit and objectivity in the system. Involvement of local communities for school improvement programmes.

NEW THOUGHTS IN INDIAN EDUCATION SYSTEM:

NEW THOUGHTS IN INDIAN EDUCATION SYSTEM Marking System: Is it justified that a student is evaluated only on the basis of his/her performance for the duration of three hours of the exam? If the axis of grading and marking is shifted to classroom participation, project work, communication and leadership skills and extracurricular performance, only then will a genuine student shine out.

Respect for all streams:

Respect for all streams OUR PARENTS COMMENT: "Oh has she done a MA in English? She’ll end up becoming a teacher" "What good is a diploma in hospitality management? It ultimately means doing a job in a hotel as a cook, right?" We look down upon vocational streams and look up to medicine, engineering , the IIT’s and the IIM’s . Students at the school level need to be educated through career counseling regarding the kind of streams that exist and what importance each of them plays to make an economy diverse.

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