bamboo as a building material (NEW)

Category: Education

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bamboo as building material with some changes


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By B. Sneha (09N61A0110)

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bamboo wood Grows 3times faster Ready and rapid adoptability Harvested annually without destructing Less capital Used by Any villager More Rehabilitation of the soil Resists tension up to 400 N/mm 2 Regenerated in shorter period and easy Tolerance to changing temperatures Tensile strength more than steel High elastic modulus Light weight Worked out by simple tools Cost of construction is low Normal growth Wood resources are getting diminished No annual harvesting More capital Unskilled labour Controls soil erosion Resists tension only up to 50 N/mm 2 Takes more time to regenerate and difficult Swell or wrap at different temperatures Heavier weight Needs heavier tools Higher cost of construction

Deals with...:

Deals with... Introduction General uses Properties The working of bamboo Preservation of bamboo Bamboo housing Advantages Disadvantages Conclusion


Introduction…. Bamboo has a long and well-established tradition as a building material throughout the world’s tropical and sub-tropical regions. Bamboo is a renewable and versatile resource, characterized by high strength and low weight. It is estimated that there are 1200 species growing in about 14.5 million hectares area. Bamboo is the world’s fastest growing woody plant.


Introduction…. Bamboo also excels in biomass production, giving 40 tons or more per hectare annually. It has been used successfully to rehabilitate soil ravage by brick making in India. One bamboo plant closely matted roots can bind up to six cubic meters of soil.

General uses:

General uses Soil stabilization, wind break, urban waste water treatment and reduction of nitrates contamination Removing atmospheric carbon. Building and construction. Small scale and cottage industries, for handicrafts and other products. New generation products as wood substitutes Industrial products Boards and furniture Medicine Paper and pulp industry Long time source of biomass for industry Fuel source



The working of bamboo methods:

The working of bamboo methods Splitting The cane is split in halves and quarters and then driven apart by a wedge. It can also be split with a knife frame into four or eight segments . Splitting of a bamboo cane. Splitting bamboo with a knife frame

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Shaping Bamboo available in nature is usually circular in cross section. Bending Freshly cut, bamboo can be bent by heating and will keep this shape after drying. Bamboo being forced to grow in a box Bamboo being subjected to bending

Why to preserve bamboos….?:

Why to preserve bamboos….? Bamboos are a natural material and will decay with time. They are also susceptible to insect and fungal attack. Preserving bamboos increases the durability of the culms and increases the lives of the products they are used to produce. It also increases the safety of any structures in which they are used as load bearing members. If used as structural components they need to be replaced less often which reduces costs in the long term. Preserved bamboos fetch higher prices than non-preserved bamboos. There are two types of preservation methods

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Termite attack on untreated samples after 6 months No termite attack on treated samples


NON CHEMICAL METHODS Non-chemical methods are otherwise known as traditional methods of preservation, are widely used by villagers and is usually done on bamboos used for structural purposes. This method includes: Curing, Smoking, Whitewashing, Soaking.


CHEMICAL METHODS Methods that use preservative chemicals are generally more effective than non-chemical methods in the protection of bamboo under storage, but they are not always economical or feasible. Butt treatment Open tank method for cold soaking Boucherie method Pressure treatment Hot and cold bath process Glue line treatment

What are the different methods of bamboo preservation?:

What are the different methods of bamboo preservation? 1. Sap displacement : The 2. Diffusion process : Culms 3. Boucherie process : sap of the bamboo is are fully immersed in Preservative is pumped replaced by preservative. preservative. through the bamboo. 4. Hot and cold process : 5. Pressure treatment : 6. Open tank method: Culms Bamboo is kept in hot Preservative is forced into are submerged in a water-soluble preservative for 2-3 the bamboo under high preservative for several days. hours. pressure.


BAMBOO HOUSING The majority of bamboo construction relates to the rural community needs in developing countries. common types of construction include farm and school buildings and bridges. Further applications of bamboo relevant to construction include its use as scaffolding, water piping and as shuttering and reinforcement for concrete.


DOMESTIC HOUSING AND SMALL BUILDINGS There is a long-standing tradition of bamboo construction, dating back to many hundreds of years. Apart from the other substances already in practice, bamboo appears to be the most promising material. The thicker culms or strands made up of several culms are employed for load bearing materials such as girder, purlin , post or rafter. A hut made of preserved bamboo

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Foundation The use of bamboo for foundation is rather restricted. The types of bamboo foundations identified are: Bamboo in direct ground contact: For strength and stability, large diameter and thick walled sections of bamboo with closely spaced nodes should be used. Bamboo on rock or preformed concrete footings : Where bamboo is being used for bearings, it should be placed out of ground contact on footings of either rock or preformed concrete. Laying of Bamboo Foundation


Continued…. Bamboo incorporated in to concrete footings : The poles are directly fit into concrete footing. Composite bamboo/concrete columns: A concrete extension is given to a bamboo post using a plastic tube of the same diameter. Bamboo piles: It is used to stabilize soft soils and reduce building settlement.

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Flooring The floors may be at ground level, and therefore consists only of compacted earth, with or without a covering of bamboo matting. The various types used are: Small bamboo culms: They are directly tied and nailed together. Split bamboo: Culms are split along their length into strips, several centimeters wide. Flattened bamboo: Formed by splitting green bamboo culms removing the diaphragms, then rolling and flattening them.


Continued… Bamboo mats: These slivers are then woven into mats of different sizes according to the available hot-press plates and user’s demands. In construction using bamboo mats, phenolic resins are employed. Bamboo plastic composites: It is an innovative technology in which bamboo fiber is the raw material and compounded with plastic as the core material of the flooring. The ratio of plastic should be over 30% for higher water resistance and dimensional stability. Bamboo mats

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Walls The most extensive use of bamboo in construction is for the walls and partitions. The major elements, the posts and beams, generally constitute part or structural framework. An infill between framing members is required to complete the wall.

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Roofing The roof offers protection against extremes of weather including rain, sun and wind, and to provide shelter, clear and usable space beneath the canopy. Bamboo is ideal as a roofing material- it is strong, resilient and light weighted. Corrugated sheets made out of bamboo are also used commonly as roof covering. A layer of bitumen is sandwiched between two mats of bamboo forming a semi rigid panel. Plastered bamboo: A cement plaster, with or without the addition of organic fibres, is traditionally applied to bamboo roofs, to get stronger roof coverings. Bamboo Roof Mats Corrugated sheets

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Scaffolding Because of the favourable relationship between load-bearing capacity and weight, bamboo can be used for the construction of save scaffoldings even for very tall buildings. The cane extension is carried out by lashing the cane ends together with several ties. The vertical and horizontal canes used for scaffolding are almost exclusively joined using soft lashing. This technique has the great advantage that the joints can be re-tensioned to the right degree without difficulty and also quickly released again.

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Lancet shingles Double layers of bamboo shingles Lancet shingles Bamboo canes used for scaffoldings

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Different things with bamboo

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Bamboo wind chimes Baboo panel

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Bamboo fire wood

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ADVANTAGES OF BAMBOO The various advantages of bamboo are mentioned below: 1) Light, strong and versatile. 2) Light, strong, versatile. 3) Environment friendly. 4) Accessible to the poor. 5) Self renewing resource 6) Fast growing. 7) Highly productive.

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DISADVANTAGES OF BAMBOO The major disadvantages of bamboo are as follows: 1) Requires preservation 2) Shaped by nature 3) Durability 4) Jointing 5) Lack of design guidance and code. 6) Prone to catch fire very fast by the friction among the culms during wind, and is seen to cause forest fires.


conclusion Since time immemorial, bamboo has played an important role in the development of mankind. It has been the backbone of much of the world’s rural life and will remain so as the population increases. The realization that bamboo is the most potentially important non-timber resource and fast-growing woody biomass, has evoked keen interest in the processing, preservation, utilization and the promotion of bamboo as an alternative to wood. Its high valued utilization not only promotes the economic development, but also saves forest resources to protect our ecological environment as a wood substitute.

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