“Training & Development”Chapter 10 : “Training & Development”Chapter 10 Instructor: Sarwat Afzal Training and Development: Definitions : Training and Development: Definitions Training and Development (T&D) - Heart of a continuous effort designed to improve employee competency and organizational performance
Training –Teaching operational and technical skills to do the job for which an individual is hired
Development- Teaching managers and professionals the skills needed for the present and future jobs Training As a Process : Training is a process by which people improve their knowledge, skills and attitudes and use them to enhance their performance on the job. Training As a Process Training definition : Planned efforts designed to facilitate the acquisition of relevant skills, Knowledge and attitude by Organizational members. Training definition Teaching Vs Training : Teaching Vs Training Teaching:
Is about educating people,
sharing wisdom, making
people more knowledgeable.
Is about development and
application of knowledge, skills
and attitudes for achieving specific objectives WHY TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT : WHY TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT TRAINING helps employees to do their current jobs.
DEVELOPMENT help the individual handle future responsibilities. Training, Development & Education : Training, Development & Education Training Basic skill enhancement specific to a job or task with immediate or short term application
Development Linked to the overall improvement of the employee’s knowledge, skill and attitude and the resultant behaviour over a longer period
Education Building the ability of the individual to interpret knowledge. Usually linked to a formal qualification The Training & Development Process : The Training & Development Process Determine T&D needs
Establish specific objectives
Select T&D method(s)
Implement T&D programs
Evaluate T&D programs Needs Assessment : Needs Assessment Needs analysis- Developed by considering the over all organizational requirement, tasks associated with the jobs; and the degree to which skills are present
Time Targeted Training Needs Assessment : Training Needs Assessment Slide 11: Need
Assessment Training &
Principles Evaluation Actual
Program Skills ,
workers Preliminary steps in preparing a Training & Development Program Learning Principles : Learning Principles Learning Principles are the guidelines to the ways in which people learn most effectively.
Feedback Slide 13: Read ? Hear Words Watch still pictures Watch moving pictures Watch exhibits Watch demonstrations Make a site visit Make a dramatic presentation Simulate a real experience Do the real thing Verbal Receiving Visual Receiving Hearing Saying Seeing& Doing 10% of what they read 20% of what they hear 30% of what they see 50% of what they hear and see 70% of what they say or write 90% of what they say as they do a thing LEVELS OF ABSTRACTION PEOPLE GENERALLY REMEMBER Training & Development Programs : Training & Development Programs On-the-Job Training (OJT)
Apprenticeship and Coaching
Lectures and Video Presentation
Job Instruction Training
Role Playing & Behavioral Modeling Case Study
Self-study & Programmed Learning
Distance & Internet-based Training On-the-Job Training (OJT): : On-the-Job Training (OJT): Training a person to learn by actually doing
it. Every employee from mailroom clerk to
company president, get on-the-job training
when he or she joins a firm.
To cross-train employees in a variety of
jobs, some trainer move a trainee from job
to job. Apprenticeship and Coaching : Apprenticeship and Coaching It is a structured process people become skilled workers through a combination of classroom instruction and on-the-job training. Craft workers such as plumber, carpenter etc. are trained under the tutelage of a master craft person. Lectures and Video Presentation : Lectures and Video Presentation It is a quick and simple way to provide
Knowledge to large group of trainees, as
when the sales force needs to learn they
special features of a new product. Job Instruction Training (JIT) : Job Instruction Training (JIT) Listing each job’s basic task, along with key points, in order to provide step-by-step training for employees.
It is used in that types of jobs which consist of a logical sequence of steps also list a corresponding “key point” and best taught step-by-step process. Vestibule Training : Vestibule Training To keep instruction from disrupting normal operations, some organizations use vestibule training.
Separate areas or vestibules are setup with equipment similar to that used on the job. Role Playing & Behavioral Modeling : Role Playing & Behavioral Modeling Role playing is a device that forces trainees to assume different identities.
Behavior modeling is referred to as “matching” or “copying” or as “observational learning” or “imitation”, all of these terms implies that behavior is learned or modified through the observation of some other individual. Case Study : Case Study In case study, trainees learn about real or hypothetical circumstances and the actions others take under those circumstances and as result a person can develop decision making skills.
A development method in which the manager is presented with a written description of an organizational problem to diagnose and solve Simulation : Simulation Training employees on actual equipments used on the job but conducted away from the actual work setting.
One involve a mechanical simulator that replicates the major features of the work situation. Other is computer simulation often comes in the form of games. Self Study and Programmed Learning : Self Study and Programmed Learning A systematic method for teaching job skill involving presenting question or facts allowing the person to respond and giving the learner immediate feed back on the accuracy of his /her answer
Computer programs with visual displays may be used instead of printed booklets. Slide 24: Laboratory Training: It is designed to enhance interpersonal skills and to develop desired behavior for future job responsibilities.
Action Learning: it takes place in small groups that seeks a solution to a real problem confronting the organization, aided by a facilitator who is either an outside consultant or a member of the firm’s in-house staff. OR a training technique by which Management trainer are allowed to work full time analyzing and solving problem in other department. Slide 25: Evaluation for training effectiveness Evaluation : Evaluation What do you mean by “Evaluation” of training and development intervention.
“Training and Development must be regarded as both a cost and an investment to an organization.”
What does the above statement means?
What does it tells us about the need to evaluate our training and development intervention? What do you mean by evaluation of training : Evaluation is:
the process for collecting, analyzing, and reporting information useful to decision makers in selecting amongst alternatives.
the process of determining, to what extent the ( training) objectives are actually being realized.
the process of providing feedback to trainers about the effectiveness of their training. What do you mean by evaluation of training Evaluation : Evaluation The process and means of evaluating training and development should be decided at the time that learning objective are established. Evaluation : Evaluation In summary, evaluation should try to find answers to three questions.
Is the training program effective in achieving its goals.
If not, what are the deficiencies in the program.
How can the deficiencies be remedied? Evaluation : Evaluation Summary
The training effort must demonstrably assist the organization to achieve its goals Evaluating Human Resource Development : Evaluating Human Resource Development Participant’s opinions (reaction)
Extent of learning (learning)
Behavioral change (behavior)
Accomplishment of T&D objectives (outcomes or result) Evaluation of T&D : Evaluation of T&D Effective criteria used to evaluate Training focus on outcomes:
1- the Reaction by trainees to the training content and process.
2- the Knowledge or learning acquired through the training experience.
3- change in Behavior that result from the training.
4- Measurable Results or Improvements in the individuals or the organization, such as lower turnover, fewer accidents or less absenteeism. Levels of Evaluation : Levels of Evaluation REACTION
Organizations evaluate the reaction level of trainees by conducting interviews or by administering questionnaires to the trainees.
A reaction-level measure could be gathered by having the managers complete a survey that asked them to rate the value of the training, the style of the instructors, and the usefulness of the training to them.
However, the immediate reaction may measure only how much the people liked the training rather than how it benefited them. Levels of Evaluation : Levels of Evaluation LEARNING
Learning levels can be evaluated by measuring how well trainees have learned facts, ideas, concepts, theories, and attitudes.
Tests on the training material are commonly used for evaluating learning and can be given both before and after training to compare scores.
To evaluate training courses at some firms, test results are used to determine how well the courses have provided employees with the desired content. Levels of Evaluation : Levels of Evaluation BEHAVIOR
Evaluating training at the behavioral level involves:
(1) measuring the effect of training on job performance through interviews of trainees and their coworkers
(2) observing job performance.
Behavior is more difficult to measure than reaction and learning.
Even if behaviors do change, the results that management desires may not be obtained. Levels of Evaluation : Levels of Evaluation RESULTS
Employers evaluate results by measuring the effect of training on the achievement of organizational objectives.
Because results such as productivity, turnover, quality, time, sales, and costs are relatively concrete, this type of evaluation can be done by comparing records before and after training
The difficulty with measuring results is pinpointing whether it actually was training that caused the changes in results.
Other factors may have had a major impact as well. Steps in the evaluation of T&D : Evaluation
Criteria Pretest Trained
workers Posttest Transfer
to the job Follow-up
Studies Steps in the evaluation of T&D Development of Human Resources : Development of Human Resources The long term development of HR is of growing concern to HR departments.
1- It reduces company dependence on hiring new workers.
2- Opening in the organization through HR planning are more likely to be filled internally.
3- promotion & transfers also show employees that they have a career not just a job.
4- Employee feel a greater commitment to the firm. Development of Human Resources (contd) : Development of Human Resources (contd) HR development is also an effective way to
meet several challenges, including:
International & domestic workforce diversity
EEO and Affirmative Action