Architecture Power Point

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Watch this presentation to prepare you students for an architectural scavenger hunt at Smith-McDowell House.

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Architecture Introduction:

Architecture Introduction You’ll never look at a building the same way again!!

Smith-McDowell House:

Smith-McDowell House Just another House? Not exactly! Built in the 1840s, enlarged in 1880s, but lets look closer… Windows… Porches… Doors… But if we learn more about the details, we will see much more!

Architectural Vocabulary:

Architectural Vocabulary With knowledge of a few architectural terms, you can begin to identify the individual elements of a building’s design and describe a building as more than just walls, windows, doors and porches. For example…

What features make these homes different?:

What features make these homes different? So let’s go deeper into some terms…

Arch:

Arch Arch: curved, load bearing feature often used with columns That was easy, right?

Bricks:

Bricks Brickwork is masonry produced by a bricklayer, using bricks and mortar. Typically, rows of bricks — called courses— are laid on top of one another to build up a structure such as a brick wall. The construction industry frequently makes use of brick as a building medium, and examples of brickwork are found right back through history as far as the Bronze Age. Parts of brickwork include  bricks ,  beds  and  perpends . The bed is the mortar upon which a brick is laid A perpend is a vertical joint between any two bricks, and is usually — but not always — filled with mortar.

Brick Terminology:

Brick Terminology Stretcher : A brick laid with its long narrow side exposed. Header : A brick laid flat with its width at the face of the wall, or parallel to the face of the wall. Soldier : A brick laid vertically with the long narrow side of the brick exposed. Sailor : A brick laid vertically with the broad face of the brick exposed.

Brick Terminology, cont.:

Brick Terminology, cont. Rowlock : A brick laid on the long narrow side with the short end of the brick exposed. Shiner : A brick laid on the long narrow side with the broad face of the brick exposed.

Bond (Brick Bond):

Bond (Brick Bond) The methods of laying bricks are called Bond.Can you explain the differences in these examples? Running Bond English Bond Flemish Bond Spanish Bond

American Bond:

American Bond Also known as Common bond. This bond has  anywhere from three to nine  courses of stretchers between every course of headers.

Other features of brick laying:

Other features of brick laying Corbel, or corbeling: a structural piece of stone, wood or metal jutting from a wall to carry a superincumbent weight, a type of bracket. Superincumbent means “lying on something else”. Sometimes a corbel like this one is called a cornice. Dentil: a small block used as a repeating ornament a cornice.

Chimneys:

Chimneys chimney  is a structure which provides ventilation for hot flue gases or smoke from a boiler, stove, furnace or fireplace to the outside atmosphere. Chimneys are typically vertical, or as near as possible to vertical, to ensure that the gases flow smoothly, drawing air into the combustion in what is known as the stack, or chimney, effect. The space inside a chimney is called a  flue . 

Cornice:

Cornice A cornice is a projecting ornamental molding along the top of a column or wall A  cornice  (from the Italian  cornice  meaning "ledge") is generally any horizontal decorative molding that crowns a building or furniture element— the cornice over a door or window, for instance, or the cornice around the top edge of a pedestal or along the top of an interior wall. A simple cornice may be formed just with a crown molding.

Columns:

Columns Column  or  pillar  is a structural element that transmits the weight of the structure above to other structural elements below. The term column applies especially to a large round support with a capital and base and made of stone, or appearing to be so. A small wooden or metal support is typically called a post, and supports with a rectangular or other non-round section are usually called piers . On the next slide, you can see terminology for individual elements of columns, then you can learn the three types of classic Greek columns.

Elements of columns:

Elements of columns

Types of Columns:

Types of Columns Greek columns are described by the design of the top of the column. You will see examples of all three types at Smith-McDowell House. DORIC IONIC CORINTHIAN

Doors:

Doors Sometimes doors are very plain and some have glass, but let’s talk about PANELS. Here, you see different types on panels used on doors. 2 panels 4 panels 6 panels

Fanlights & Transoms:

Fanlights & Transoms Fanlights and transoms are just windows above doors or windows, but the difference is in the shape. TRANSOM FANLIGHTS

Fireplaces:

Fireplaces A  fireplace  is an architectural structure designed to contain a fire. In historic and modern usage, a  hearth  is a brick- or stone-lined fireplace, with or without an oven, used for heating and originally also used for cooking food. Hearth can also refer to the stone or tile area just in front of the fireplace. The Mantle is the surrounding element which includes decorative elements and a flat surface for the display of objects such as pictures.

Porches:

Porches 1. 2. 7. 6. 5. 4. 3. Shed Porch Engaged Porch Portico Double-Tier Porch 5. Double Tier Portico 6. Semi-engaged Porch 7. Stoop Portico Notice the roof difference between the portico and the stoop.

Roofing Materials:

Roofing Materials Shingles  is the generic term for a roofing material that is in many overlapping sections, regardless of the nature of the material. Shingles may be made of wood such as Red Cedar and Hardwood. 30-year life expectancy. Slate ( metamorphic rock slate) High cost with a life expectancy of up to 200 years. Ceramic tile . High cost, life of more than 100 years. Copper roofing is lighter than wooden shingles and much lighter than slate, tile, or lead.

Roof Lines:

Roof Lines 1. 6. 5. 4. 3. 2. Gable Roof Gambrel Roof Flat Roof Hipped Roof Mansard Roof Shed Roof What kind of roof does your school have? What kind of roof does your home have?

Shutters:

Shutters Original definition: wooden features hung by windows that could be opened and closed to control temperature, to keep bugs out and protect from storms. Now, most shutters are merely ornamental and have to functional use except to add decoration to a house. But – can you see the difference?

Operational vs Ornamental Shutters:

Operational vs Ornamental Shutters The top row are operational shutters. See how the shutters are attached to the actual windows? Ornamental shutters are placed on the wall just beside the windows.

Solarium:

Solarium Also called a Sun Room, Sun Parlor or Conservatory a room with glass walls and sometimes a glass roof.

Stairs - terminology:

Stairs - terminology Tread Rise Landing Banisters Ballusters Newel post

Symmetry & Asymmetry:

Symmetry & Asymmetry You’ve heard this term in your art class! Draw an imaginary line down the middle – if each side is a mirror image of the other, that is symmetry. This is true of houses, too. Can you identify the symmetrical designs from the asymmetrical ones?

Windows - terminology:

Windows - terminology

Windows - terminology:

Windows - terminology Transom light - a transverse horizontal structural beam or bar, or to the crosspiece separating a door or a window from a window above it. Called a fanlight if the shape is like a fan. Windows to the side of a door or a window are called Sidelights.

Windows - terminology:

Windows - terminology WINDOWS can be described by the number of glass PANES in the upper and lower sections such as: 1 over 1 4 over 4 6 over 6 Other combinations may also be found, such as 4 over 1 and 9 over 9 and 2 over 2 .

Other windows:

Other windows Quatrefoil window Oriel window Eyebrow window Dormer window

What have you learned?:

What have you learned? Use your new vocabulary to discuss similarities and differences in these different styles of houses.

When you visit Smith-McDowell House…:

When you visit Smith-McDowell House… In each of our exhibit rooms, you will be asked to identify various architectural items such as windows, cornices, paint colors, door panels. Keep your eyes open!! In order to survey all 6 rooms, you’ll need to look, answer the questions and move on! Remember the basic rules of Museum manners: Please no touching of objects and walls. Please obey the placement of rope barriers. Use your “inside” voice and your walking steps!

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