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Concepts and Definitions:

Concepts and Definitions Knowledge management (KM) is a process that helps organizations identify , select , organize, disseminate, and transfer important information and expertise that are part of the organization’s memory and that typically reside within the organization in an unstructured manner. Purpose effective and efficient problem solving, dynamic learning , strategic planning , and decision making. For organizational success, knowledge, as a form of capital, must be exchangeable among persons , and it must be able to grow.




DATA, INFO. & KNOWLEDGE data are a collection of facts, measurements, and statistics, information is organized or processed data that are timely (i.e., inferences from the data are drawn within the time frame of applicability) and accurate (i.e., with regard to the original data) Knowledge is information that is contextual , relevant , and actionable .


DATA, INFO. & KNOWLEDGE For example, a map giving detailed driving directions from one location to another could be considered data . An up-to-the-minute traffic bulletin along the freeway that indicates a traffic slowdown due to construction several miles ahead could be considered information . Awareness of an alternative, back-roads route could be considered as knowledge .

Knowledge as a organization’s assets:

Knowledge as a organization’s assets Knowledge has the following characteristics that differentiates it from an organization’s other assets Extraordinary leverage and increasing returns (value increases instead of decrease if consumed) Fragmentation , leakage, and the need to refresh .( refresh its knowledge ) Uncertain valu e(difficult to estimate the impact of an investment in knowledge.) Uncertain value of sharing . (difficult to estimate the value of sharing the knowledge ) Rooted in time . (The utility and validity of knowledge may vary with time ; hence , the immediacy, age, and volatility of knowledge are important attributes .)

Types of Knowledge:

Types of Knowledge Intellectual capital (or intellectual assets ) : implies that there is a financial value to knowledge Tactic and Explicite : Explicit knowledge deals with more objective, rational, and technical knowledge (data, policies , procédures, software, documents, etc.) also called leaky knowledge because of the ease with which it can leave an individual, document, or the organization, after it has been documented Tacit knowledge is usually in the domain of subjective, cognitive, and experiential learning; it is highly personal and difficult to formalize also referred to as embedded knowledge, is usually either localized within the brain of an individual or embedded in the group interactions within a department or a branch office . Also called sticky knowledge because it may be relatively difficult to pull it away from its source.

Knowledge Management System cycle:

Knowledge Management System cycle

Knowledge Management System cycle:

Knowledge Management System cycle The cycle works as follows : 1. Create knowledge . Knowledge is created as people determine new ways of doing things or develop know-how. Sometimes external knowledge is brought in. 2. Capture knowledge. New knowledge must be identified as valuable and be represented in a reasonable way. 3. Refine knowledge. New knowledge must be placed in context so that it is actionable. This is where human insights (tacit qualities) must be captured along with explicit facts. 4. Store knowledge. Useful knowledge must then be stored in a reasonable format in a knowledge repository so that others in the organization can access it. 5. Manage knowledge . Like a library, the knowledge must be kept current. It must be reviewed to verify that it is relevant and accurate. 6. Disseminate knowledge. Knowledge must be made available in a useful format to anyone in the organization who needs it, anywhere and anytime.


KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT INITIATIVES (Processes/Activities) Knowledge Creation Knowledge Sharing Knowledge Seeking

Knowledge Creation: :

Knowledge Creation: generation of new insights, ideas, or routines . also be referred to as knowledge acquisition There are four modes of knowledge creation: socialization, externalization, internalization , and combination The socialization mode refers to the conversion of tacit knowledge to new tacit knowledge through social interactions and shared experience among organizational members The combination mode refers to the creation of new explicit knowledge by merging, categorizing , reclassifying , and synthesizing existing explicit knowledge Externalization refers to converting tacit knowledge to new explicit knowledge Internalization refers to the creation of new tacit knowledge from explicit knowledge

Knowledge Sharing:

Knowledge Sharing is the willful explication of one’s ideas, insights, solutions , experiences (i.e., knowledge) to another individual either via an intermediary , such as a computer-based system, or directly. in many organizations, information and knowledge are not shared, knowledge sharing in organization: knowledge fairs : designed to promote new relationships among colleagues in order to facilitate knowledge transfer Performance evaluation : openness to new ideas, continual learning, and sharing of knowledge

Knowledge Seeking:

Knowledge Seeking Knowledge seeking, also referred to as knowledge sourcing is the search for and use of internal organizational knowledge While the lack of time or the lack of reward may hinder the sharing of knowledge, the same can be said of knowledge seeking.


APPROACHES TO KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT The process approach attempts to codify organizational knowledge through formalized controls, processes, and technologies explicit policies governing how knowledge is to be collected, stored, and disseminated throughout the organization. involves the use of information technologies to enhance the quality and speed of knowledge creation and distribution in the organizations. include intranets, data warehousing, knowledge repositories, decision support tools, and groupware levels of the process approach Rudimentary level : knowledge may be codified in project descriptions, stories, or other forms of documentation, but limited filtering At the next level , knowledge may be codified into structured concepts, frameworks, and theories. At the highest level , knowledge is embedded into work practices that give direction to employees

PowerPoint Presentation:

The practice approach: In contrast process approach is tacit in nature and no formal controls, processes, and technologies are suitable for transmitting this type of understanding. the focus of this approach is to build the social environments or communities of practice necessary to facilitate the sharing of tacit understanding Communities of practice are groups of individuals with a common interest who work together informally Within such a community, individuals collaborate directly, teach each other, and share experiences is typically adopted by companies that provide highly customized solutions to unique problems. The valuable knowledge for these firms is tacit in nature, which is difficult to express, capture, and manage.


INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Components of Knowledge Management Systems: communication, collaboration, storage and retrieval.

Communication technologies:

Communication technologies allow users to access needed knowledge, and to communicate with each other—especially with experts. E-mail, the Internet, corporate intranets, and other Web-based tools provide communication capabilities. fax machines and the telephone are used for communication, especially when the practice approach to knowledge management is adopted

Collaboration technologies:

Collaboration technologies provide the means to perform group work. Groups can work together on common documents at the same time (synchronous) or at different times (asynchronous); in the same place, or in different places. important for members of a community of practice working on knowledge contributions. experts working with individuals trying to apply their knowledge. collaborative computing systems allow an organization to create a virtual space so that individuals can work online anywhere and at any time.

Storage and retrieval technologies:

Storage and retrieval technologies originally meant using a database management system to store and manage knowledge. This worked reasonably well in the early days for storing and managing most explicit knowledge, and even explicit knowledge about tacit knowledge. However, capturing, storing, and managing tacit knowledge usually requires a different set of tools. eg :- Electronic document management systems and specialized storage systems that are part of collaborative computing systems

Technologies Supporting Knowledge Management:

Technologies Supporting Knowledge Management ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE assist in identifying expertise, eliciting knowledge automatically and semiautomatically , interfacing through natural language processing, and in intelligent search through intelligent agents assist in and enhance searching knowledge, including scanning e-mail, documents, and databases and helping establish knowledge profiles of individuals and groups help determine the relative importance of knowledge, when knowledge is both contributed to and accessed from the knowledge repository, and help determine meaningful relationships in the knowledge

Technologies Supporting Knowledge Management:

Technologies Supporting Knowledge Management INTELLIGENT AGENTS are software systems that learn how users work and provide assistance in their daily tasks For example, when these software programs are told what the user wants to retrieve, passive agents can monitor incoming information for matches with user interests and active agents can seek out information relevant to user preferences To be continued ………

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