Child Strees & Coping Strategies

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Slide 1: 

CHILD STRESS & COPING STRATEGIES

Stress (clinical definition) - is the body's reaction to a change that requires a physical, mental or emotional adjustment or response. - an organism's total response to environmental demands or pressures. Stress - it is what we experience when too much pressure is put on us.

Emotion - heightened feeling: a strong feeling about somebody or something Stress in humans results from interactions between persons and their environment that are perceived as straining or exceeding their adaptive capacities and threatening their well-being. - associated with mood, temperament, personality, disposition and motivation

Regulation of Emotion - is the term that describes individual differences in how people regulate their emotions through growth, specifically the ways we attempt to regulate our emotions, by denying, intensifying, weakening, curtailing, masking, or completely hiding them. - described as the process in which we modify our emotional reactions, the coping processes that increase or decrease the intensity of the moment. : 

Regulation of Emotion - is the term that describes individual differences in how people regulate their emotions through growth, specifically the ways we attempt to regulate our emotions, by denying, intensifying, weakening, curtailing, masking, or completely hiding them. - described as the process in which we modify our emotional reactions, the coping processes that increase or decrease the intensity of the moment.

There are three major stages in our lives: childhood, adolescence and adulthood. During each of these phases our regulation of emotions drastically improves. : 

Emotion regulation is essential to socialization and is dependent on the culture one lives in as well as the specific social context of the situation. There are three major stages in our lives: childhood, adolescence and adulthood. During each of these phases our regulation of emotions drastically improves.

The process to which we regulate our emotions is very complex and involves four stages:1. internal feeling states (i.e. the subjective experience of emotion)2. emotion-related cognitions (e.g. thought reactions to a situation)3. emotion-related physiological processes (e.g. heart rate, hormonal or other physiological reactions)4. emotion-related behavior (e.g actions or facial expressions related to emotion) : 

The process to which we regulate our emotions is very complex and involves four stages:1. internal feeling states (i.e. the subjective experience of emotion)2. emotion-related cognitions (e.g. thought reactions to a situation)3. emotion-related physiological processes (e.g. heart rate, hormonal or other physiological reactions)4. emotion-related behavior (e.g actions or facial expressions related to emotion)

Early Childhood Emotional Development : 

Early Childhood Emotional Development

Slide 8: 

Early childhood is a time when children develop at exponential rates compared to the teenage and adult years. As children learn to interact with the world, they make emotional connections with each experience. The emotional experiences from this time form a core part of a child's self-image.

IdentificationUnlike the physical changes that occur in childhood, a child's emotional development is harder to monitor. As children mature, issues surrounding self-concept, gender identity and social status are developing along the way. The way they behave is usually a clear indicator of what they are dealing with on an emotional level. Early childhood is a foundation-building period; the lessons learned at this time will form the core of a child's personality and outlook on life.

FunctionA child's personality or temperament has a significant influence on emotional development. Children who are more adaptable may progress more smoothly, whereas those who are less responsive to new people and new environments may have a tougher time. During infancy and throughout childhood, children's emotional needs are conveyed through their behaviour, since verbal communication is limited. The parent's ability to understand and tend to these needs may very well determine the overall emotional health of the child in later years. : 

FunctionA child's personality or temperament has a significant influence on emotional development. Children who are more adaptable may progress more smoothly, whereas those who are less responsive to new people and new environments may have a tougher time. During infancy and throughout childhood, children's emotional needs are conveyed through their behaviour, since verbal communication is limited. The parent's ability to understand and tend to these needs may very well determine the overall emotional health of the child in later years.

Self-ConceptThroughout early childhood, every experience a child has works to further develop self-concept. Interactions with parents, other children and adults all contribute to a sense of self as the child experiences social and emotional interactions with others. Infants begin to express feelings of separation anxiety as they come to bond with the parent, whereas children who are 2 to 3 years old look to establish a sense of independence. This need for a sense of independence marks the beginning stages of self-concept in a child. : 

Self-ConceptThroughout early childhood, every experience a child has works to further develop self-concept. Interactions with parents, other children and adults all contribute to a sense of self as the child experiences social and emotional interactions with others. Infants begin to express feelings of separation anxiety as they come to bond with the parent, whereas children who are 2 to 3 years old look to establish a sense of independence. This need for a sense of independence marks the beginning stages of self-concept in a child.

Gender IdentityA child's sense of gender identity begins to take shape as early as 18 months to two years of age. It's at this time that a child begins to associate his body image with gender. The roles that go along with gender are also incorporated into a child's gender identity. Parents serve as role models in this respect, meaning the child will incorporate aspects of the parents' conduct into a sense of gender identity. As a result, emotional characteristics of the parent become a part of the child's gender-identity development. : 

Gender IdentityA child's sense of gender identity begins to take shape as early as 18 months to two years of age. It's at this time that a child begins to associate his body image with gender. The roles that go along with gender are also incorporated into a child's gender identity. Parents serve as role models in this respect, meaning the child will incorporate aspects of the parents' conduct into a sense of gender identity. As a result, emotional characteristics of the parent become a part of the child's gender-identity development.

Social InteractionSocial development in a child begins to take shape between ages two and three as they begin interacting with other children. It is at this time that children learn how to resolve conflicts and how to share belongings with others. These experiences provide children opportunities for emotional development within a social setting. Issues surrounding self-concept and gender identity will also come into play as they learn to interact with other children. : 

Social InteractionSocial development in a child begins to take shape between ages two and three as they begin interacting with other children. It is at this time that children learn how to resolve conflicts and how to share belongings with others. These experiences provide children opportunities for emotional development within a social setting. Issues surrounding self-concept and gender identity will also come into play as they learn to interact with other children.

Emotional Development in Middle Childhood : 

Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

Slide 15: 

A. Self-Conscious Emotions 1. In middle childhood, the self-conscious emotions of pride and guilt become clearly integrated by personal responsibility; these feelings are now experienced in the absence of adult monitoring. 2. Shame is often felt when violating a standard not under one's control. Shame may also be experienced after a controllable breach of standards if the self-as-a-whole is blamed for it.

3. Pride motivates children to take on further challenges, and guilt prompts them to make amends and strive for self-improvement as well. : 

B. Emotional Understanding .  1. School-age children's understanding of psychological dispositions means that they are likely to explain emotion by making reference to internal states rather than physical events. 2. These children are also more aware of the diversity of emotional experiences. 3. Pride motivates children to take on further challenges, and guilt prompts them to make amends and strive for self-improvement as well.

3. Similarly, school-age children appreciate that emotional reactions need not reflect a person's true feelings, and they can use information about a person's past experiences to predict how he or she will feel in a new situation.4. Cognitive and social experience also contribute to a rise in empathy. : 

3. Similarly, school-age children appreciate that emotional reactions need not reflect a person's true feelings, and they can use information about a person's past experiences to predict how he or she will feel in a new situation.4. Cognitive and social experience also contribute to a rise in empathy.

C. Emotional Self-Regulation  1. Children come up with more ways to handle emotionally arousing situations as they make rapid gains in emotional self-regulation during middle childhood.2. When the development of emotional self-regulation has gone along well, school-age children acquire a sense of emotional self-efficacy-a feeling of being in control of their emotional experience.3. Emotionally well-regulated children are generally upbeat in mood, more empathic and prosocial, and better liked by their peers. : 

C. Emotional Self-Regulation  1. Children come up with more ways to handle emotionally arousing situations as they make rapid gains in emotional self-regulation during middle childhood.2. When the development of emotional self-regulation has gone along well, school-age children acquire a sense of emotional self-efficacy-a feeling of being in control of their emotional experience.3. Emotionally well-regulated children are generally upbeat in mood, more empathic and prosocial, and better liked by their peers.

Slide 19: 

When we encounter a difficult or stressful life situation, we react in various ways - to try to make the situation better or to decrease the stress and difficult feelings that the situation has created. All of these reactions may be called ‘coping.’ Coping - refers to changing cognitive and behavioural efforts to manage specific demands that are appraised as taxing or exceeding the resources of the person.

Signs of stressSlipping school performance Sleep problemsNightmaresReturning to less mature behaviors (for e.g. thumb sucking, tantrums)Renewed separation anxietyNew bedwettingIrritability, outbursts, or tantrumsHopelessness : 

Signs of stressSlipping school performance Sleep problemsNightmaresReturning to less mature behaviors (for e.g. thumb sucking, tantrums)Renewed separation anxietyNew bedwettingIrritability, outbursts, or tantrumsHopelessness

Signs of Stress cont’nChange in eating habitsAngerIsolation or withdrawalLoss of friendsNew circle of friendsRadically new style of dressPhysical symptoms such as belly pain, head aches, fatigue, or chest Missing school or frequent symptomsDrugs, alcohol or cigarette use : 

Signs of Stress cont’nChange in eating habitsAngerIsolation or withdrawalLoss of friendsNew circle of friendsRadically new style of dressPhysical symptoms such as belly pain, head aches, fatigue, or chest Missing school or frequent symptomsDrugs, alcohol or cigarette use

Coping Strategies in Children : 

Mental Blocking or Disconnecting Emotionally Making it Better Through Fantasy Physical Avoidance Looking for Love (and Acceptance) in all the Wrong Places Taking Charge Through Caretaking Reaching out for Help Crying out for Help Re-Directing Emotions into Positive Activities Trying to Predict, Explain, Prevent or Control the Behavior of an Abuser Coping Strategies in Children

Faculty: Dr. A. ANAND : 

Faculty: Dr. A. ANAND www.eisrjc.com www.peerc.com www.aerassociation.com Presented by: Ms.Lilibeth Graduate Student

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