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HEALTH AND ITS FAILURE The significance of health Health is considered to be the state of perfect functioning of body and mind, unhindered by diseases. Health has been described as the state of complete physical, mental and social being. It has the following advantages- 1.Good health makes a man happy and cheerful. 2.It makes living a joyful experience. 3. It increases our efficiency for doing work. Good health permits us to perform the various day-to-day activities at our best, as individual, as communities and as a nation. 4.Good health is condition for purposeful existence in this world.


1)It is a state of complete physical, mental and social well being. 2) It depends upon the individual, as well as physical and social environment. 3) A healthy person will be disease free as well. 4) The person is energetic and able to perform as per requirement. 1) It is a state of absence of discomfort or derangement in any part of the body. 2) It is related to the individual only. 3) A disease free person can be healthy or unhealthy. 4) Performance of a disease free person depends upon environment and personal attitude. DISTINCTION BETWEEN HEALTH AND DISEASE-FREE


DISEASE AND ITS CAUSES 1) Acute diseases-It is a short duration diseases, e.g., common cold, malaria, typhoid, diarrhea.

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2) Chronic diseases-It is long duration disease. It builds up with time, e.g., tuberculosis, elephantiasis, hypertension, diabetes.


INFECTIOUS AND NON-INFECTIOUS DISEASES Diseases are broadly classified into two categories, congenital and acquired. 1) Congenital diseases-They are diseases present since birth, e.g., hemophilia, color blindness.

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2) Acquired diseases- They are those diseases which are picked up after birth. Depending upon their ability or inability to spread from one individual to another, acquired diseases are of two kinds, infectious and non-infectious. a)Infectious[communicable] Diseases- These diseases can spread from diseased person to healthy person, e.g., tuberculosis, malaria, diarrhea ,etc.

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b) Non-Infectious[Non-communicable] Diseases- They are diseases which are not caused by any pathogen or living organisms. They are neither present at birth nor spread from one person to another, e.g., goitre, diabetes etc.


INFECTIOUS DISEASES Infectious agents- The various infections agents are bacteria, viruses, protozoan’s, helminthes and fungi. 1) Bacteria-They are unicellular, prokaryotic, microscopic organisms. Diseases spread by them are typhoid, cholera, tuberculosis, anthrax, diphtheria, tetanus, etc. 2) Viruses- They are submicroscopic crystallisable organisms. The various diseases caused by viruses are common cold, influenza, dengue fever, SARS, AIDS, measles, mumps, polio, small pox, chicken pox, Swine Flu[H1N1], etc.

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3) Protozoan’s- They are microscopic unicellular, eukaryotic organisms. The various diseases caused by protozoa are malaria[by Plasmodium], kala-azar[by Leishmania], sleeping sickness [by Trypanosoma], amoebic dysentery [by Entamoeba], giardiasis [by Giardia] etc. 4) Helminthes- Helminthes are multicellular worms which are mostly found in intestine. They cause taeniasis[by tapeworm], ascariasis[by round worm], elephantiasis[by filarial worm], etc. 5) Fungi- They are also multicellular, eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms. They cause ring worm, athlete’s foot and other skin infections.

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WHY CATEGORISE INFECTIOUS AGENTS It is important to categories infectious agents because each group of organisms have some common traits and many similar biochemical pathways.


MEANS OF SPREAD The means of communication or spread are different for different pathogens. 1) Direct transmission- The pathogens are transmitted from an infected person to a healthy person directly without an intermediate. It occurs in the following ways- Contact with infected person Contact with soil Animal bites Transplacental Transmission

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2) Indirect transmission - The pathogens of some diseases are carried through some intermediate agents. It occurs in the following ways- Vectors Through Contaminated Food and Water Air Transmitted Diseases Fomite Borne

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ORGAN SPECIFIC AND TISSUE SPECIFIC MANIFESTATIONS Human body has a number of organs, tissues and systems. Every pathogen has developed adaptation to infect a particular organ, tissue or system. Portal Related Organ and Tissue Specificity The microorganisms enter the body through various routes. If they enter through nose, they are likely to go into the lungs and cause respiratory disorders like tuberculosis or pneumonia.

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Nonportal Organ and Tissue Specificity Plasmodium enters the blood, goes to the liver to multiply and then passes into red blood cells. In HIV[human immunodeficiency virus], which causes AIDS, enters the body through sexual contact and then spreads to lymph nodes all over the body.

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PRINCIPLES OF TREATMENT There are two ways to treat an infectious disease. They are- Reduce the effect of the disease- This is carried out by two methods, symptomatic treatment and rest. Symptomatic Treatment Bed rest

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2) Killing the Microorganisms of Infectious Agents Antibiotic are drugs which can block the biochemical life processes of bacteria without harming human cells. Sulpha drugs prevent the folic acid synthesis in bacteria while human beings do not require this process. Penicillin prevents cell wall synthesis in bacteria while human cells are without cells.

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