introduction to prestressed concrete

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PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

Reinforced concrete::

Reinforced concrete: Concrete is strong in compression weak in tension. Steel in strong in tension Reinforced concrete uses concrete to resist compression and to hold bars in position and uses steel to resist tension. Tensile strength of concrete is neglected (i.e. zero ) R.C beams allows crack under service load.

Pre-stressed Concrete:

Pre-stressed Concrete What is Pre-stressed Concrete ?: Internal stresses are induced to counteract external stresses . In 1904, Freyssinet attempted to introduce permanent acting forces in conc. to resist elastic forces under loads and was named “Pre stressing”.

Concept of pre-stressing::

Concept of pre-stressing : i . The concept of pre stressing was invented invented years ago when metal brands were wound around wooden pieces to form barrels. ii . The metal brands were tighten under tensile stress which creates compression between the staves allowing them to resist internal liquid pressure.

Principle of pre-stressing::

Principle of pre-stressing : Pre-stressing is a method in which compression force is applied to the reinforced concrete section. The effect of pre stressing is to reduce the tensile stress in the section to the point till the tensile stress is below the cracking stress. Thus the concrete does not crack. It is then possible to treat concrete as a elastic material. The concrete can be visualized to have two compressive force i . Internal pre-stressing force. ii . External forces (d.l , l.l etc ) These two forces must counteract each other.

Principle of Pre-stressing::

Principle of Pre-stressing : Stress in concrete when pre stressing is applied at the c.g of the section

Principle of Pre-stressing::

Principle of Pre-stressing : Stress in concrete when pre stressing is applied eccentrically with respect to the c.g of the section .

Pre-stressed Concrete: Methods :

Pre-stressed Concrete: Methods There are two basic methods of applying pre-stress to a concrete member Pre-tensioning – most often used in factory situations Post-tensioning – site use

Types of pre-stressing::

Types of pre-stressing : I . Pre-tensioning In Pre-tension, the tendons are tensioned against some abutments before the concrete is place. After the concrete hardened, the tension force is released. The tendon tries to shrink back to the initial length but the concrete resists it through the bond between them, thus, compression force is induced in concrete. Pretension is usually done with precast members

II . Post tensioning:

II . Post tensioning In Post tension, the tendons are tensioned after the concrete has hardened. Commonly, metal or plastic ducts are placed inside the concrete before casting. After the concrete hardened and had enough strength, the tendon was placed inside the duct, stressed, and anchored against concrete. Grout may be injected into the duct later. This can be done either as precast or cast-in-place.

Post tensioning:

Post tensioning

Advantages::

Advantages : Take full advantages of high strength concrete and high strength steel Need less materials Smaller and lighter structure No cracks Use the entire section to resist the load Better corrosion resistance Good for water tanks and nuclear plant Very effective for deflection control Better shear resistance

Disadvantages compared to RC::

Disadvantages compared to RC: Need higher quality materials More complex technically More expensive Harder to re-cycle

Application::

Application: Bridges Slabs in buildings Water Tank Concrete Pile Thin Shell Structures Offshore Platform Nuclear Power Plant Repair and Rehabilitations

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