TERAFIL water Water purification Tech

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Low cost Terafil water filter

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‘TERAFIL’ green technology- Low cost & sustainable water purification systems S.Khuntia Chief Scientist & Head Design & Rural Technology Department Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology (council of Scientific & Industrial Research) Bhubaneswar-751013 E-Mail ID: khuntias@gmail.com

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Common Technology for removal of Iron: Presence of Iron in water: In dissolved, particulate & colloidal forms. 2. Above basic forms dependant of pH of water. 3. Common treatment methods: Oxidation/ filtration and adsorbing onto Ion exchange resins. (a) Oxidation: Commonly used Aeration - blowing/spraying air through the water Addition of dissolved chemical oxidants - chlorine, chlorine dioxide and potassium permanganate (KMnO4) Adsorption - greensand media and activated carbon (b) Ion Exchange resins: Limited uses, suitable for contaminants in dissolved form & at very low level. Chances for reversible problems and fouling the surface of resins. 4. Operation & maintenance: Require power, back wash frequently, replacement of filtration media, use of chemicals.

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Innovation for masses: ‘TERAFIL’ water purification systems TERAFIL media (disc) : Porous terracotta disc, made from red clay (pottery clay), sand & wood saw dust Principles : Pores in Terafil, created by saw dusts, separated by ultra-fine clay walls, but connected each other by capillaries (0.2 to 0.3 µm). Sediments, iron, bacteria removed on top surface of Terafil disc, and pH, tastes improves through filtration without clogging its core, resulting 5 yrs life of Terafil disc TERAFIL water filter disc 5,000 lit/day Terafil plant in Karnataka Iron sludge Terafil production Low cost device for removal of excess iron from water along with turbidity and bacteria without electricity & chemicals. Domestic filer 5,000 LPD plant in Karnataka

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Pores (without direct connectivity) Cross section of Terafil Distribution of silver particles on micro-platelets Impregnation of nano -silver in Terafil disc: By ARCI, Hyderabad ( Not yet commercialized ) Silver loading : 0.3 gm per 100 mm dia. Terafil candle Silver leaching in product water : 0.01 – 0.03 mg/ Ltr (WHO : <0.1 mg/ Ltr ) Removal of micro-organisms : 100 % ( ARCI - Hyd.) Capillaries (connecting pores) 0.2 - 0.3 µm Silver impregnated

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‘ TERAFIL ’- Red clay filtration media (disc) For treatment of ground water :- Quality of product water:- Turbidity : Within BIS limits Bacteria : Within BIS limits Iron : Within BIS limits pH : Within BIS limits Correction of pH for acidic raw water Color & odor reduces drastically and improves taste. Cost of product water: Rs.2/- per ton (considering total cost) Life of Terafil filtration disc: 5 years Life of Terafil stand-alone plant: 10 to 50 yr. For treatment of surface water :- Mild chlorination (2mg/ ltr . bleaching power) to get pathogen free product water from contaminated raw water. Capacity : 1 lit/hr to 1,00,000 lit/day, (No scale-up limitation) Waste management : Insoluble sludge Rejection of water : Nil Sludge removal: Top wash by water jets or scrubbing Operation : Without electricity & chemicals Maintenance : Almost NIL TERAFIL water filters

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Hypothesis for removal of soluble iron from raw water and increase of pH in product water during filtration through TERAFIL clay media

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Hypothesis : (Ref. : D. V. Halem, Master of Science Thesis, Faculty of Civil Engg., Delft University of Technology, Netherlands, November 2006) Removal of Iron : Clay minerals have a negative surface charge & its magnitude is relatively constant. Reactive surface of clay particles interacts with ions & molecules in aqueous solution. Interaction between negatively charged clay particle surface and cations in top layer pore water generate an electric double layer, which is an important phenomenon for Ion exchange. Therefore iron from raw water is removed, and some other minerals from Terafil clay is released to product water, which results in increase of pH & TDS of product water. Precipitation of iron oxide/ hydroxide occurs on top surface of Terafil disc. (B) Increase of pH of product water : Release of ions of Calcium (Ca 2+ ), Aluminum (Al 3+ ), Monosilicic acid (H 4 SiO 4 ) & Hydroxide (OH - ) from Terafil materials into water responsible for increment of pH of product water. Many sorption mechanism & precipitation all results removal & release of metals from water, which is very difficult to distinguish.

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Terafil based water purification Technology : Gravity Filtration : Point - of - use: Domestic Terafil water filter (20 to 70 LPD) Community Terafil water filter: 1000 to 1,00,000 LPD (No scale-up limitation) Removal of sludge deposit: manual scrubbing or water sprayer Frequency of cleaning: once in 15 to 30 days, depending on turbidity and iron of raw water. Life: 10 to 50 yrs. Low cost ( Rs.10/- to 12/- per liter capacity community plant with RCC chamber) Rs.2/- per ton product water Domestic filter: Plastic chamber, Community filter: RCC chamber Floor area: 1.25 sq.ft / 200 liter per day capacity: for community filter Pressure filtration : On-line Terafil water filter: 100-200 lit/ hr (depending on turbidity) Community pressure filter: 1000 to 10,000 lit/ hr Automatic cleaning & removal of sludge from top surface of Terafil disc. Life: 5 to 20 yrs (depending on materials of chambers) Low cost ( depending upon material of construction of filter) Rs.2/- per ton product water or less. High capacity , compact and requires very less surface area. Domestic on-line: Plastic chamber, Community filter: Stainless steel

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Some TERAFIL based water treatment systems: Domestic filter : Capacity: 50 lit/day (Gravity filtration) Unit cost: Rs.500/- Life : 10 years 2. Ferro-cement Low cost filter : (Gravity filtration) Capacity: 1,000 lit/day Unit cost: Rs.15,000 /- (piping extra) Life : More than 10 yrs (Feeding of raw water: piped supply preferable) Ferro-cement - Terafil Filter 3. Domestic on-line Filter : (Pressure filtration with Overhead tank) Capacity: 200 lit/hr Unit cost: Rs.2,000/- Life : More than 5 yrs (Auto-cleaning & require overhead tank for feeding raw water) Terafil with plastic container Water spray through nozzle

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4. Community on-line Filter : (Pressure filtration with Stainless Steel Chamber) Capacity: 500 to 5000 lit/hr Unit cost: Rs. 50,000/- to Rs. 2,00,000/- Life : More than 50 yrs (Auto-cleaning & low pressure pump for feeding of raw water) 5. LLDPE Tank Terafil water purification plant : (Gravity filtration) Capacity: 1,000 lit/day Tentative unit cost: Rs.15,000/- (piping extra) Life: more than 10 yrs (Feeding raw water: piped supply preferable) Community Terafil water purification plant : (Gravity filtration with RCC chambers) Capacity: 5000 to 1,00,000 LPD Unit cost: Rs. 50,000/- to Rs. 10,00,000/- Life : More than 50 yrs (Semi-auto cleaning & low pressure pump for feeding of raw water) Community On-line Terafil water filter Community Terafil water filter with LLDPE Chamber

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30,000 Lit/day Terafil gravity flow water purification plant.

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Inauguration of 25,000 Lit/ day Terafil water purification plant by Director General of CSIR at IMMT, Bhubaneswar during March 2009 large capacity Terafil water purification plant for community applications ( 5,000 to 1,00,000 lit/day)

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Community On-line Terafil water filter (5000 lit/ hr capacity)

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Domestic On-line Terafil water Filter (200 Ltr/hr capacity) Terafil disc Operates by overhead tank or pump Auto- cleaning of sediments from Terafil disc

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Removal of sediments by circular water jet sprayer Nozzle Water spray through nozzle inside filter

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Capacity: 50 lit/day Containers: Polypropylene (food grade plastic) Nos. of Terafil candles: 3 (100 mm diameter) Rate of filtration: 4 – 5 lit/hr Life of containers: 8 – 10 yrs. Life of Terafil candles: 3 – 5 yrs. Unit cost: Rs.500/- More than 1,00,000 units disseminated in J&K, Sikkim, Himachal, Bihar, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand’ Tamilnadu, Karnataka, Gujarat, UP, Odisha etc at present. Plastic Containers produced by CIPET-GOI centers at Bhubaneswar, Chennai, Ahmadabad & Luknow. Lid Top container Terafil Support ring Bottom container Tap DOMESTIC TERAFIL WATER FILTER More than 1,00,000 Sets of Terafil water filter used at present Domestic ‘Terafil’ water filter (POU):

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Terafil filter in slum and SC & ST houses in Orissa

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Use of Terafil Water filter in primary schools in Jajpur Dist of Orissa

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1,000 LPD TERAFIL water filter in schools under JALMANI More than 50, 000 units in operation in various states Community TERAFIL water filter in schools under JALMANI programme

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Iron contaminated raw water Terafil water filter with ferro-cement chambers in JALAMANI programme. in schools of Odisha, installed by RWS&S, Govt of Odisha

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Training of high level delegates of Arunachal Pradesh on construction of 1,000 LPD Terafil water filter with pre-fabricated RCC rings at IMMT-Bhubaneswar

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Cementing TERAFIL disc on middle plate

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Deposit of Iron oxide sludge over TERAFILS

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Removal of sediments from surface of Terafil disc (Top wash) through water sprayers : Semi-automatic operation.

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5000 LPD Terafil water purification plants installed in Karnataka

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Performance of TERAFIL water filters

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10,000 LPD TERAFIL GRAVITY FILTER Location: CSIR-IMMT, Bhubaneswar (Sept. 2010 – Oct 2011) Iron from raw water adsorbed on Terafil surface and some minerals of Terafil clay released to product water during filtration, resulting to increase of pH & TDS of product water. pH Iron Turbidity TDS RW RW RW FW FW FW RW FW

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1,000 LPD TERAFIL GRAVITY FILTER Location: Utkal University School, Bhubaneswar under JALMANI (Oct. 2009 – Oct 2011) Iron from raw water adsorbed on Terafil surface and some minerals of Terafil clay released to product water during filtration, resulting to increase of pH & TDS of product water. pH Iron TDS Turbidity FW FW FW RW RW RW RW FW

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Performance of 1,500 sets Domestic Terafil Water filters Installed in few villages of Odisha (August 2009 – September 2011) pH Iron RW RW FW FW

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Performance of domestic online Terafil water filters in CSIR-IMMT, Bhubaneswar Campus( Aug 2009 to Aug. 2011) Iron pH TDS Turbidity FW RW RW RW RW FW FW FW

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Raw water FW (without chemicals): LRV: 3 FW (from RW + 2 & 3 mg/lit Bleaching powder) FW (from RW + 1mg/lit Bleaching powder): LRV: 4 Total coliform count in Raw & Filtered water ( with/ without chemical treatment)

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Total coliform in raw water (treated with 2 mg/lit bleaching powder (30% Chlorine) Total coliform in filtered water (Raw water treated with 2 mg/lit bleaching powder prior to filtration) Total Coliform count in Input water: 2.8 – 3.5 X 10 6 CFU/ml Reduction through Terafil (without chemical treatment): 99.9% (Log 10 Reduction = 3) Reduction through Terafil ( Raw water treated with 2mg/lit Bleaching powder): 100%

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Efficiency of removal of microorganisms by filtration through Terafil disc (without chemical treatment )

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Manufacturers of TERAFIL water filtration disc & community Terafil water filter (licensed by IMMT, Bhubaneswar under CSIR guidelines) : Nos. of licensees: 87 entrepreneurs for manufacturing of Terafil disc in different states and 75 entrepreneurs for community Terafil water filter (1000 LPD only) Modern Pottery-Bhubaneswar, Orissa Farm Land …Chikmangalur, Karnataka Sree Sai…Hindupur, Andhra Pradesh

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Contaminated raw water can be treated with 2 mg. / Ltr. bleaching powder followed by filtration through TERAFIL Water Filtration Media (Disc) to obtain pathogen free clean & iron safe drinking water. Excess iron & turbidity reduces significantly and pH increases substantially for purification of contaminated surface and ground water. Domestic & Stand-Alone TERAFIL water purification plant is efficient, affordable and sustainable for supply of drinking water without use of electricity in rural sector. Online Terafil water filters is an affordable and sustainable technology for instant purification and supply of clean drinking water for urban & semi-urban areas and for disaster management. Terafil water purification disc and filters can be easily produced by small and micro industries in each part of the country. Terafil water purification systems is a green technology which functions without chemicals & electricity for long period. Conclusion:

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Thank you Save drinking water