logging in or signing up dna computing sk100verma Download Post to : URL : Related Presentations : Share Add to Flag Embed Email Send to Blogs and Networks Add to Channel Uploaded from authorPOINT lite Insert YouTube videos in PowerPont slides with aS Desktop Copy embed code: Embed: Flash iPad Dynamic Copy Does not support media & animations Automatically changes to Flash or non-Flash embed WordPress Embed Customize Embed URL: Copy Thumbnail: Copy The presentation is successfully added In Your Favorites. Views: 411 Category: Science & Tech.. License: All Rights Reserved Like it (0) Dislike it (0) Added: April 28, 2012 This Presentation is Public Favorites: 0 Presentation Description dna computig....... Comments Posting comment... Premium member Presentation Transcript DNA COMPUTING: DNA COMPUTING By : Suresh kr verma cs 3 rd yearConception: Moore’s Law states that silicon microprocessors double in complexity roughly every two years. One day this will no longer hold true when miniaturisation limits are reached. Intel scientists say it will happen in about the year 2018. Require a successor to silicon. ConceptionCurrent Problems: Current Problems In the words of Dr. Leonard Adleman , “we simply cannot, at this time, control molecules with the deftness that electrical engineers and physicists control electrons”. Use of ‘biochips’ in human bodies may generate opposition from technophobes.What is DNA?: What is DNA? DNA stands for Deoxyribonucleic Acid DNA represents the genetic blueprint of living creatures DNA contains “instructions” for assembling cells Every cell in human body has a complete set of DNA DNA is unique for each individualUniqueness of DNA: Uniqueness of DNA Why is DNA a Unique Computational Element??? Extremely dense information storage. Enormous parallelism. Extraordinary energy efficiency.Can DNA Compute?: Can DNA Compute? DNA itself does not carry out any computation. It rather acts as a massive memory. BUT, the way complementary bases react with each other can be used to compute things. Proposed by Adelman in 1994Instructions in DNA : Instructions in DNA Instructions are coded in a sequence of the DNA bases A segment of DNA is exposed, transcribed and translated to carry out instructions Sequence to indicate the start of an instruction Instruction that triggers Hormone injection Instruction for hair cells ………Evolution of the DNA computer: Evolution of the DNA computer Began in 1994 when Dr. Leonard Adleman wrote the paper “Molecular computation of solutions to combinatorial problems”. He then carried out this experiment successfully – although it took him days to do so!Evolution of the DNA computer Cont...: Evolution of the DNA computer Cont... DNA computers moved from test tubes onto gold plates. First practical DNA computer unveiled in 2002. Used in gene analysis.Evolution of the DNA computer Cont...: Evolution of the DNA computer Cont... Self-powered DNA computer unveiled in 2003. First programmable autonomous computing machine in which the input, output, software and hardware were all made of DNA molecules. Can perform a billion operations per second with 99.8% accuracy.Operations: Operations Melting:- breaking the weak hydrogen bonds in a double helix to form two DNA strands which are complement to each other Annealing:- reconnecting the hydrogen bonds between complementary DNA strands Merging:- mixing two test tubes with many DNA molecules Amplification:- DNA replication to make many copies of the original DNA molecules Selection:- elimination of errors (e.g. mutations) and selection of correct DNA moleculesThe Smallest Computer: The Smallest Computer The smallest programmable DNA computer was developed at W eizmann Institute in Israel by Prof. Ehud Shapiro last year It uses enzymes as a program that processes on on the input data (DNA molecules).Specifications: Specifications One pound of DNA has the capability to store more information than all the electronic computers ever built. One cm 3 of DNA can hold approximately 10 terabytes of data DNA computer the size of a teardrop would be more powerful than the worlds most powerful supercomputerAdvantages of DNA computers: Advantages of DNA computers There is always a plentiful supply of it. Since there is a plentiful supply, it is a cheap resource. DNA biochips can be made cleanly, unlike the toxic materials used to make traditional microprocessors. DNA computers can be made many times smaller than today's computers. DNA computers are massively parallel in their computation.Current problems with the DNA computer: Current problems with the DNA computer DNA computers are not completely accurate at this moment in time. During an operation, there is a 95% chance a particular DNA molecule will ‘compute’ correctly. Would cause a problem with a large amount of operations. DNA has a half-life. Solutions could dissolve away before the end result is found.Environment compatibility: Environment compatibility Intrapsychic – Already complies since it has been conceptualised! Construction/manufacture – This will be answered in time. Adoption – Should inherit customer base of silicon computers. Use – Already seen the potential for this. Failure – Inherits this from silicon microprocessors. Scrapping – Cleaner to dispose of than current microprocessors. Political/ecological – Could face opposition from technophobesConclusion: Conclusion DNA computers showing enormous potential, especially for medical purposes as well as data processing applications. Still a lot of work and resources required to develop it into a fully fledged product. It will not replace the current computers because it is application specific, but has a potential to replace the high-end research oriented computers in future.PowerPoint Presentation: ?Presented by : Suresh Kumar Verma CS-3rd Year GNIT GR.NOIDA (UP): Presented by : S uresh Kumar Verma CS-3 rd Year GNIT GR.NOIDA (UP) THANKS FOR YOUR PATIENCE You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.