Anti nutritional factors

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Anti nutritional factors and their chemical properties:

Anti nutritional factors and their chemical properties

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Definition:- Anti Nutritional Factor can be defined as a substance which under practical circumstances can impair some aspect of animal metabolism and produce adverse biological or economic effects in animal production. Classification of Anti Nutritional Factors:- Anti Nutritional Factors can be classified variously depending on i. Chemical structure ii. Occurrence in feeds and Iii. Site of action and/ or metabolic effect

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I Chemical structure:- Alkaloid :- Alkaloids are compounds that contain nitrogen, usually in heterocyclic ring, and are generally basic substances. They are usually bitter and are more toxic. They are further classified on the basis of the chemical type of the nitrogen containing heterocyclic ring. Name of alkaloid Chemical nature Source Effect on biological system Pyrrolizidine Pyrrolizidine nucleus consist of two five membered ring Monocrotaline, Heliotropin, Lasiocarpine and senecionine Irreversible liver damage (liver cirrhosis) Piperidine Conium maculatum Affect the central nervous system and are teratogenic Pyridine Nicotiana spp. (tobacco)

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Name of alkaloid Chemical nature Source Effect on biological system Indole Derivatives of the amino acid tryptophan Bovine Pulmonary Emphysema Quinolizidine Quinolizidine nucleus Lupines consists of two six membered rings Acute poisoning in sheep and teratogenic effects in calves Steriod I Solanum type ii V eratum type -- -- Green potatoes, tomatoes and Nightshade false Hellebore -- CNS poisons and cholinesterase inhibitiors. Teratogenic effects in Lambs and prolonged gestation in ewes. Polycylcic diterpene Larkpurs Acute CNS effects Indolizidine Swainsoma spp. Astragalus spp Inhibitors of α- mannosidase, resulting in the accumulation of mannose deposits in lysosomes of nerve cells. Tryptamine Phalaris tuberosa Phalaris poisoning results in acute neurological signs and chronic muscular incordination Torpane Datura spp Effects CNS

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Glycosides:- Glycosides are ethers containing carbohydrate moiety and a non-carbohydrate moiety (aglycone) joined with an ether bond. They are usually bitter substances. Name of the Glycoside Chemical Nature Sources Effect on biological system Cyanogenic They are glycosides of sugar and a cyanide containing aglycone. Yield HCN on hydrolysis Dhurrin (Sorghums and Jhonson grass) Potent inhibitor of cytochrome oxidase, a respiratory enzyme Goiterogenic (glucosinolates) They are thioethers containing organic aglycone Brassica spp. (cabbage, Kale and Rapeseed) Decrease the production of thyroid hormones, goitre. Coumarin Coumarin is converted to dicoumarol by mould growth, an antagonist of Vit-K Clover Hay Vit -K deficiency

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Name of the Glycoside Chemical Nature Sources Effect on biological system Steroid and triterpenoid i )Cardiac glycosides ii)Saponins Contains a sterol group in their structure (digitonin; Cardenolides) Glycosides with foaming properties and forms stable foam. Contain polycyclic aglycone (steroid and triterpinoids) and side chain of sugars Foxgloves, milk weed Alfalfa, Soyabean, chick pea . Potent stimulator of heart rate. Bitter taste and effects palatability and cause bloat in ruminants; growth depression in poultry and swine . Vicine Fava bean Causes haemolytic anemia due to breakdown of cell membrane(Favism)

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Name of the Glycoside Chemical Nature Sources Effect on biological system Calcinogenic Contains glycosides of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, the active metabolite of vitamin D Solanum malocoxylon, Cestrum diurnum Causes an induced Vit-D toxicity manifested by calcinosis. Carbohydratactylose Xanthium spp Uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylaton, thus causes hypoglycaemic effect and hepatic lesions, convulsions Isoflavones These compounds are known as Phytoestrogens, contains flavones nucleus Sub terranean clover, red clover, alfalfa Causes reproductive problems.

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Proteins:- Many important inhibitors in plants are proteins. Of interest is that in some cases the effect of these is to inhibit the utilisation of other proteins by animals. A brief account of such anti-nutritive factors is tabulated below. Name of the Protein Chemical nature Source Effect on biological system Protease and Amylase inhibitors Soyabean, rye and triticale. Amylase inhibitors in beans They bind and inactive the digestive enzyme trypsin in small intestine, cause reduced growth and pancreatic hypertrophy Lectins (Hemagglutinins) Glycoprotein of 60,000-1,00,000 MW Soyabean and most of the beans Cause agglutination (clumping) of red cells, reduced growth, diarrhoea and interfere with nutrient absorption Enzymes Thiaminase Lipoxidase Bracken fern Soyabean and alfafa This enzyme cleaves the B vitamin thiamine, inactivate it and cause thiamine deficiency. Chastek’s paralysis in minks. Degrade fat soluble vitamins

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Amino acids and amino acid derivatives:- There are about 300 amino acids in plants and some of them are very toxic to the animals. Some of such acids are tabulated in the following table . Name of the Amino acid Chemical Structure Source Effect on biological system Mimosine The structure is similar to tyrosine Subabool Cause reduced growth rate and alopesia in non ruminants and goitre in ruminants Tryptophan Under certain conditions it is metabolised to 3-methylindole and cause acute bovine pulmonary emphysema Dihydroxy phenylalanine Fava beans Pharmacological effects

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Name of the Amino acid Chemical Structure Source Effect on biological system Selanomino acids Amino acids containing Se in place of sulphur Astragalus spp Se toxicity Lathyrogenic amino acids Lathyrus spp Paralysis and skeletal deformities. 1-amino-d-raline Linseed meal Antagonist to pyridoxine (vit B 6 ) Indospecine Indigofera Antagonist to arginine S-methylcysteine Kale, turnips RBC hemolysis and anaemia sulfoxide (brassica anaemia factor)

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Carbohydrates:- There are few toxicity problems associated with carbohydrates. Xylose, a hexose sugar causes reduced growth and eye cataract in pigs and poultry. Certain oligosaccharides viz. rafffinose, are not digested in the monogastric animals and so promote bacterial growth in the hind gut. These are the flatulence factors in beans. Non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) are not digested and they exerts certain harmful effects and reduce the availability of valuable nutrients in non-ruminants . Lipids:- Some of the fatty acids are toxic to the animals. They include erucic acid in rapeseed, which causes myocardial infarction in rats. Cyclopropenoid fatty acids, viz. sterculic and malvic acids in cotton seed, posses toxic properties and cause pink colourations in stored eggs. They are also cocarcinogens in increasing the carcinogenicity of aflatoxins.

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Glycolipids:- In this compound two of the alcohol groups of glycerol are esterified by fatty acids and the other is linked to a sugar residue. Ryegrass toxicity has been attributed to a gycolipids, corynetoxin. The toxin is synthesised by a corynebacterium which colonizes galls, produced by a nematode, in the ryegrass seed head. The toxin affects the brain, leading to incoordination and staggering .

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Metal-binding substances:- Some compounds have affinity to bind with some of the metals leading to mineral deficiencies in farm animals. Name of the metal binding substances Chemical structure Source Effect on the biological system Oxalates Oxalate is an organic dicarboxylic acid Paddy straw, Anjan grass They chelate calcium and produce hypocalcemia Phytates Salts of phytic acid Cereal grains, Soya bean meal Cause reduced mineral availability, particularity zinc through formation of insoluble phytates in addition to low phosphorous availability in non-ruminants. Mimosine The structure is similar to tyrosine Subabool Binds copper and zinc ions more strongly than most amino acids

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Phenolic compounds :- Phenolic compounds contain an aromatic ring (s) with one or more hydroxyl groups. i ) Hypericin:- It is a Phenolic compound in Hypericum perforatum . It is a primary photosensitizing agent, producing dermatitis and skin lesions in light skinned animals by reacting with UV light at the skin surface to produce a photodynamic reaction. ii) Gossypol :- It is a poly Phenolic compound present in cottonseed meal. It reduces growth rate and food intake, produce cardiac lesions and induce male infertility. iii) Tannin:- Tannins are polyphenolic compounds that react with proteins. They are astringent and adversely affect feed intake. They are important in oak poisoning and in nutritional problems associated with sorghum grains. Mycotoxins :- Mycotoxins are metabolites of fungi (moulds) that are toxic to animals. Some of the mycotoxins involved are aflatoxins, phomopsin, tremorgens, T-2 toxin, citrinin, ochratoxin, sporidesmin and zaralenone. They cause death in poultry, liver cancer in trout, lupinosis, fescus foot of cattle, sweet clover poisoning and ergotism.

II) Classification of Natural Toxins by their occurrence in feeds:- :

II) Classification of Natural Toxins by their occurrence in feeds:- Most feedstuffs and forages used in feeding of livestock contain potentially deleterious factors. List of some common and important toxicants in feedstuffs: Feedstuff Toxicants Grains All Rye, triticale Milo Grain amaranth Phytates, mycotoxins. Trypsin inhibitior, ergot Tannin Oxalates and saponins Tubers Potatoes Cassava Solanura alkaloids Cyanogenic glycosides

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Feedstuff Toxicants Protein Supplements Soyabean Cottonseed Rapeseed Linseed meal Fava beans Trypsin inhibitiors, lectins, goitrogens, saponins, phytates, mycotoxins. Gossypol, tannins, cyclopropenoid fatty acids, mycotoxins Glucosinolates, tannins, erucic acid, sinapine. Linamarin, linatine, trypsin inhibitors, vicine, lectins Forages Legumes: Alfalfa White clover Red clover Sweet clover Sub terranean clover Luecaena spp Indigofera spp Saponins, phytoestrogens, bloating agents Cyanogens, phytoestrogens, bloating agents Slaframine, phytoestrogens, bloating agents Coumarin Phytoestrogens Mimosine Indospecine

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Grasses: Forage sorghum Tall fescue Tropical grass Others forage brassicas Cyanogens Fescue alkaloid Oxalates Brassica anemia factor

III) Classification of Natural Toxicants by their site of action and/or metabolic effect :

III) Classification of Natural Toxicants by their site of action and/or metabolic effect All the metabolic functions in the animal body is affected by one or more inhibitors present in plants. For virtually every organ, endocrine gland, and metabolic pathway in animals, there is corresponding inhibitors in plants. Efforts have been made to classify some toxicants by their site of action in the following table

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Target organs/or metabolic effect Incriminating factor(s) Effect on biological system Mouth Proteolytic (PE) –bromealin (pineapples) and papain (papaya) Oxalate crystals Digest cellular protein in buccal cavity ca. Ca oxalate crystals penetrate the mucous membranes of mouth and throat and cause irritation. Digestive tract i )Rumen ii)Intestine iii)Diarrhoea iv)Prolapsed rectum Nitrate and nitrite Lupinosis and oxalate toxicity Saponins Oxalate poisoning Saponin, tannins and seleno amino acids, trypsin and amylase inhibitors, Lectin Pyrrolizidone alkaloid Pyrrolizidone alkaloid Rumen stasis Bloat Rumenitis, bloat Irritation and damage to the intestinal mucosa Inhibitory effects on digestive enzymes in small intestine, reduction in absorption of nutrients Diarrhoea Prolapsed rectum

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Target organs/or metabolic effect Incriminating factor(s) Effect on biological system Liver i )Hepatotoxin ii)Mineral metabolism iii)Cholestasis Pyrrolizidone alkaloid, Lupin toxicity Pyrrolizidone alkaloid Lantana poisoning Irreversible liver damage cirrhosis and fatty liver Elevated Cu concentration Cholestasis, or cessation of bile flow Kidney Pyrrolizidone alkaloid Kidney damage Circulatory system Lathyrus poisoning Saponins, favism, Pyrrolizidone alkaloid Ergot alkaloid Calcinogenic glycosides Cyclopropenoids Arotic aneurism Erythrocyte haemolysis Vasoconstriction, loss of blood in extremeties Hypocalcemia Hypercholesterolemia Heart Erucic acid, Digitoxin (fox glove) Gossypol Cardiac lesion Increased heart rate Cardiac irregularity

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Target organs/or metabolic effect Incriminating factor(s) Effect on biological system Bone Lupin, Astragalus toxin Bracken fern poisoning Oxalates Skeletal deformity Destruction of bone marrow Fibrosis of bones Eye Astragalus toxin Blindness Nervous system Indolizidine alkaloids Lathyrism Pyrrolizidine alkaloid Thiaminase (bracken fern) Axonal dystrophy Degeneration of spinal cord Incoordination (ataxia) in horse Polyneuritis Muscle Lupinosis Nutritional myopathy Thyroid gland Glucosinolates, thiocynates, mimosine Goitre

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Target organs/or metabolic effect Incriminating factor(s) Effect on biological system Reproductive system Phytoestrogens Isoflavones (phytoestrogens) Gossypol Lupines, poison hemlock, and veratrum Estrogenic effect Female infertility Male infertility Teratogenic effects Immune system Aflatoxins, trichothecenes Impairment of immune system Hair, skin and extremeties Hypericin, Phylloerythrin, Sporidesmin, Mimosine and selenium Ergot poisoning Primary photosensitization Secondary photosensitization Facial eczema Alopecia Sloughing of extremities Energy and Protein metabolism i)Protein ii)carbohydrates Trypsin inhibitor Indospecine Pyrrolizidine alkaloid Pyrrolizidine alkaloid α-amylase inhibitors α-mannosidase inhibitor Impairment of protein digestion Arginine deficiency Impairment of liver function Inhibition of protein synthesis by cell Inhibition of starch digestion Mannosidosis

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Target organs/or metabolic effect Incriminating factor(s) Effect on biological system iii)Lipids iv)Energy metabolism Lupinosis Aflatoxin Fluroacetate Nitropropionic acid HCN Fatty liver Inhibition of fat absorption Inhibits TCA cycle Inhibits succinate dehydrogenase Inhibits cytochrome oxidase Mineral metabolism Phytic acid, oxalates Hepatoxins (Pyrrolizidine alkaloid) Oxalates Calcinogenic glycosides Impairment of mineral absorption Depletion of liver storage of Zn and Cu Hypocalcemia Hypercalcemia