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It happens when greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, water vapor, nitrous oxide, and methane) trap heat and light from the sun in the earth’s atmosphere, which increases the temperature. This hurts many people, animals, and plants. Many cannot take the change, so they die.Global Warming - Examples: Global Warming - Examples June 2002 Dec 2003 Colorado River, ArizonaGlobal Warming - Examples: Global Warming - Examples 1914 2004 Portage Glacier, AlaskaWhy it is happening?: Why it is happening?Main cause: Main cause Raise in normal temperature Imbalance in greenhouse effectGreenhouce Gases: Greenhouce Gases Nitrous oxide Water Carbon dioxide Methane Sulfur hexafluorideSlide 9: The Sun’s energy passes through the car’s windshield. This energy (heat) is trapped inside the car and cannot pass back through the windshield, causing the inside of the car to warm up. Greenhouse EffectWhy it happens?: Why it happens? Burning carbon-containing fossil fuels produces carbon dioxide C + O 2 = CO 2CO2 Significant greenhouse pollutant : CO 2 Significant greenhouse pollutant Humans have increased carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in the atmosphere by more than 37% since the Industrial Revolution . - NOAA 2008 The most carbon dioxide (385 ppm ) in 800,000 years. - Prof. Thomas Blunier , Univ. of Copenhagen; Monaco Declaration 2008.Slide 12: Methane from rice paddies both ends of animals, garbage in landfills and mining operationsGlobal Warming - Effects: Global Warming - Effects Geographical effects Climate change Wildlife humansSlide 14: Melting Sea Ice 7 23% smaller than previous minimum; 39% smaller than average Ice 53% thinner in region of North Pole between 2001 and 2007 (NOAA Report Card 2008) Ice only 3 feet thick in most locations (NOAA FAQ, 2007 In September 2007 an area the size of Florida (69,000 square miles) melted in six days (NSIDC 2007) Humpback whales spotted in Arctic Ocean for first time in 2007Slide 15: The Arctic Ocean could be ice-free in summer by 2040 (U.S National Center for Atmospheric Research, 2006) “Society can still minimize the impacts on Arctic ice.” Dr. Marika Holland, National Center for Atmospheric Research 2000 2040 Melting Sea IceSlide 16: Sea-level rise projections : a few inches to a few feet 2 ft: U.S. would lose 10,000 square miles 3 ft: Would inundate Miami Affects erosion, loss of wetlands, freshwater supplies Half of the world’s population lives along coasts Big question: Ice sheetsSlide 17: Spread of disease As northern countries warm, disease carrying insects migrate north, bringing swine flu and other disease with them.Slide 18: As the temperature of oceans rise, so will the probability of more frequent and stronger hurricanes . Warmer waters and more hurricanesSlide 19: Increased probability and intensity of droughts and heat wavesSlide 20: Increase in frequent volcanic eruptions due to rise in temperaturesSlide 21: Forest fire increased due to hot windsSlide 22: Nitrous oxide from fertilizers and other chemicalsClimate Change: Climate Change Important factor affected as a result of global warming Climate change happens when there is a change in Sun’s output Earth’s orbit Drifting continents Volcanic eruptions Greenhouse gasesWeather Vs Climate: Weather Vs Climate “Climate is what we expect, weather is what we get.” Mark Twain US National Weather Service Photo courtesy of Parker Rittgers / ADN reader submissionWildlife effects: Wildlife effectsWildlife effects: Wildlife effects Effects of global warming on animals is one of serious threat to Biodiversity Extinction Some species migrates from one place to other for survivalPolar Bear: Polar Bear Polar bear who depend on sea ice announced as an endangered species The numbers in the western Hudson bay down by 22% in 17 years The cubs perished from 61 to 22 per 100 females Increase in cannibalismBrown Bear: Brown Bear Factors of Concern: Diet impairment: fish and berries (Kenai Brown Bears – fish 90% of diet v. black bears 10%) Hibernation disturbances for reproducing females (Jan-May) 2 months to implant Cub growth Flooding of dens Reduction in productivity and survival rates following salmon decline inCaribou : Caribou The Western Arctic Caribou Herd shrank by 113,000 Since 1989, the Porcupine Caribou Herd has declined at 3.5% per year to a low of 123,000 animals in 2001 Freezing rain coats lichen Changing rivers Less tundraBirds Threatened : Birds Threatened Birds flying higher, farther away Lakes and rivers too low Fewer birds seenMigratory Birds: Migratory Birds Population appears to be “in peril”(Consensus Report, 2006) Declined from over 7 million to 3.39 million Record low in 2006: 3.2 million 70% breed in western boreal forest; Fastest rate of decline there “Declines reflect breeding season events. 19% wetland loss in Yukon Flats Where ponds lose 20% or more surface, scaup food sources declineEffects on human beings: Effects on human beingsGlobal warming and Human Health: Global warming and Human Health Global warming will affect human health in a number of different ways The spread of infectious diseases will be affected Agriculture will be affected Extreme weather patterns will be affected The amount of smog near the ground will be affected The supply of freshwater available to humans will be affectedThe infectious diseases: The infectious diseases Infectious diseases can be carried by many different organisms, among them are ticks, flies and mosquitoes. When the climate becomes warmer such organisms called vectors such as ticks, flies and mosquitoes can breed easier in the warmer wetter climates. As climate change begins to affect our planet to a greater extent the infectious disease carrying organisms will be able to reach higher altitudes and will have a longer season of breeding, increasing the likelihood of a human being in contact with the disease Also, as the climate warms the amount of algae and fish that produce toxins poisonous to humans will increaseSlide 36: Human Health and Extreme Weather Patterns A study done in relation to the city of New York shows that the number of people who die heat related deaths annually there would increase to around 1,700 people annually also by only 2050 Also, there a potential trend for more hurricanes when the temperature of the seas increase because hurricanes are fueled by warm ocean waters Although the actual number of hurricanes may not increase as a result of global warming, it is their intensity that is thought to increase, or their potential energy As a result of an potential increase in the intensity and thus possibly the amount of damage many hurricanes could be capable of doing, insurance agencies who are paying for increased amounts of damage due to hurricanes could even go bankrupt as a resultHuman Health and Agriculture: Human Health and Agriculture A good part of the world and its countries rely on agriculture as their main source of income and of food In a first scenario precipitation is expected to increase due to global warming, meaning that many crops will receive too much water and will be drowned as fields flood due to a projected rise of 40 centimeters in sea level In a second scenario the amount of evaporation is expected to increase due to global warming, meaning that even more crops will die due to a lack of waterSlide 38: For many countries this change could mean death, in fact that projected number of starving people worldwide is expected to be 40-300 million people in addition to the 600 million already projected to be starving in 2060Human Health and Water Supply: Human Health and Water Supply Due to global warming the amount of annual precipitation and the amount of ice converted to freshwater from the polar ice caps is projected to increase A rise in sea level is projected for 2100 of as much as 40 centimeters This rise in sea level could not only destroy human dwellings and human places of agricultural production but could also destroy many sea-side aquifers which would deplete the general water supply for humankindHuman Health and Air Conditions: Human Health and Air Conditions Due to global warming, the amount of smog that is created by nitrous oxide, or ozone that is near the ground, will increase An increase in the amount of smog near the ground level could potentially result in fatally warm summer days for those humans sensitive to such gases As gases such as smog enter human lungs, they can increase the potential of lung infection which can lead to deathWhat can we do?: What can we do? Ways to stop/control global warmingEnergy Conservation: Energy Conservation It is one of the most important task that should be considered Using alternate sources of energy in daily life is better way to conserve energySlide 44: REDUCE USE Plastic bags and cups do not decompose so harmful to environment Paper bags and cups are eco friendly and easily decomposable Reduce the usage of cars for short distances Walk /use cycles for short distancesSlide 45: Turn to compact florescent light which saves more than 80% of energySlide 46: Avoid turning up the air conditioner. Instead dress lightly or use a fan. Keep rooms cool by closing the blinds, shades, or curtains. Turn off the lights when you leave. Conserve electricity! DO NOT leave appliances on standbySlide 47: REUSE Paper can be reused for various purposes Covers and boxes which comes with products can be used for decorative purposes Plastic bags can be used for carrying small thingsSlide 48: RECYCLE & REUSE What Can Be Recycled? Paper Items Paper Cardboard Envelopes Phone Books Post-it Notes Magazine Bottles and Cans Cans Plastic Bottles Glass Bottles Aluminum Foil Yogurt and Cottage Cheese containersSlide 49: Use alternate energy courses Alternate energy sources Nuclear Wind Geothermal Hydroelectric Solar FusionAdvantages of 3R’s: Advantages of 3R’s Reduction of wastages Less pollution Efficient use of resources Increase in energySlide 51: TRY TO SAVE OUR PLANET You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.