06 Process Selection & Facility Layout

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Chapter 6 : 

Chapter 6 Process Selection and Facility Layout

Slide 2: 

Process Selection and System Design

Slide 3: 

Introduction Make or Buy? Available capacity Expertise Quality Consideration The nature of demand Cost

Slide 4: 

Variety How much Flexibility What degree Volume Expected output Process Selection

Slide 5: 

Process Types Job Shops Small runs Batch Processing Repetitive/Assembly Semicontinuous Continuous Processing Projects Nonroutine jobs

Slide 6: 

Variety, Flexibility, & Volume

Slide 7: 

Product-Process Matrix

Slide 8: 

Service blueprint: A method used in service design to describe and analyze a proposed service. Service Blueprint

Slide 9: 

Establish boundaries Identify steps involved Prepare a flowchart Identify potential failure points Establish a time frame Analyze profitability Service Process Design

Slide 10: 

Automation: Machinery that has sensing and control devices that enables it to operate Automation

Slide 11: 

Automation Computer-aided design and manufacturing systems (CAD/CAM) Numerically controlled (NC) machines Robot Manufacturing cell Flexible manufacturing systems Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM)

Slide 12: 

Layout: the configuration of departments, work centers, and equipment, with particular emphasis on movement of work (customers or materials) through the system Layout

Basic Layout Types : 

Basic Layout Types Product Layouts Process Layouts Fixed-Position Combination Layouts

Basic Layout Types : 

Basic Layout Types Product Layout Layout that uses standardized processing operations to achieve smooth, rapid, high-volume flow Process Layout Layout that can handle varied processing requirements Fixed Position Layout Layout in which the product or project remains stationary, and workers, materials, and equipment are moved as needed

Slide 15: 

Requires substantial investments of money and effort Involves long-term commitments Has significant impact on cost and efficiency of short-term operations Importance of Layout Decisions

The Need for Layout Decisions : 

The Need for Layout Decisions

The Need for Layout Designs (Cont’d) : 

The Need for Layout Designs (Cont’d)

Basic Layout Formats : 

Basic Layout Formats Group Technology Layout Just-in-Time Layouts May be assembly-line or Group Technology formats Fixed Position Layout e.g. Shipbuilding

Cellular Layouts : 

Cellular Layouts Cellular Manufacturing Group Technology Flexible Manufacturing Systems

Cellular Layouts : 

Cellular Layouts Cellular Manufacturing Layout in which machines are grouped into a cell that can process items that have similar processing requirements Group Technology The grouping into part families of items with similar design or manufacturing characteristics

A Flow Line for Production or Service : 

A Flow Line for Production or Service Flow Shop or Assembly Line Work Flow

A U-Shaped Production Line : 

A U-Shaped Production Line

Process Layout : 

Process Layout

Slide 24: 

Functional Layout

Cellular Manufacturing Layout : 

Cellular Manufacturing Layout

Design Product Layouts: Line Balancing : 

Design Product Layouts: Line Balancing

Cycle Time : 

Cycle Time

Determine Maximum Output : 

Determine Maximum Output

Determine the Minimum Number of Workstations Required: Efficiency : 

Determine the Minimum Number of Workstations Required: Efficiency

Precedence Diagram : 

Precedence Diagram Precedence diagram: Tool used in line balancing to display elemental tasks and sequence requirements

Example 1: Assembly Line Balancing : 

Example 1: Assembly Line Balancing Arrange tasks shown in the previous slide into workstations. Use a cycle time of 1.0 minute Assign tasks in order of the most number of followers

Solution to Example 1 : 

Solution to Example 1

Calculate Percent Idle Time : 

Calculate Percent Idle Time

Line Balancing Rules : 

Line Balancing Rules Assign tasks in order of most following tasks. Assign tasks in order of greatest positional weight. Positional weight is the sum of each task’s time and the times of all following tasks. Some Heuristic (intuitive) Rules:

Solution to Example 2 : 

Solution to Example 2

Slide 36: 

Parallel Workstations

Slide 37: 

Requirements: List of departments Projection of work flows Distance between locations Amount of money to be invested List of special considerations Designing Process Layouts

Example 3: Interdepartmental Work Flows for Assigned Departments : 

Example 3: Interdepartmental Work Flows for Assigned Departments