Chapter 07

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C HAPTER 7 S ALES O BJECTIVES AND Q UOTAS

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The relationship between sales objectives and quotas. Why quotas are important. The various types of quotas. The methods for setting quotas. Criteria needed for a good quota plan. Major areas for establishing objectives. How organizations set objectives. The selling by objectives process. L EARNING O BJECTIVES Objectives and quotas are fundamental parts of a company, because they provide the sales force with direction and goals. Selling by objectives (SBO) is a system that unites the sales force. This chapter should help you understand:

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W HAT IS A Q UOTA? A quota refers to an expected performance objective. Quotas are tactical in nature and thus derived from the sales force’s strategic objectives.

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W HY ARE Q UOTAS I MPORTANT? Quotas provide performance targets. Quotas provide standards. Quotas provide control. Quotas provide change of direction. Quotas are motivational.

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T YPES OF Q UOTAS Sales volume quotas .

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Sales volume quotas includes dollar or product unit objectives for a specific period of time.

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T YPES OF Q UOTAS Sales volume quotas. Break down total sales volume.

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Individual established and new products. Geographic areas based on how the sales organization is designed, which would include: Sales division. Sales regions. Sales districts. Individual sales territories. Product lines.

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T YPES OF Q UOTAS Sales volume quotas . Break down total sales volume. Profit quotas.

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Gross margin quota determined by subtracting cost of goods sold from sales volume. Net profit quota determined by subtracting cost of goods sold and salespeople’s direct selling expense from sales volume. The two types of profit quotas:

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T YPES OF Q UOTAS Sales volume quotas . Break down total sales volume. Profit quotas. Expense quotas.

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Expense quotas are aimed at controlling costs of sales units. Often expenses are related to sales volume or to the compensation plan.

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T YPES OF Q UOTAS Sales volume quotas. Break down total sales volume. Profit quotas. Expense quotas. Activity quotas.

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Activity quotas set objectives for job-related duties useful toward reaching salespeople’s performance targets.

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Customer satisfaction refers to feelings about any differences between what is expected and actual experiences with the purchase.

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T YPES OF Q UOTAS Sales volume quotas . Breakdown total sales volume. Profit quotas. Expense quotas. Activity quotas. Quota combinations.

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M ETHODS FOR S ETTING S ALES Q UOTAS Quotas based on forecasts and potentials. Quotas based on forecasts only. Quotas based on past experience. Quotas based on executive judgments. Quotas salespeople set. Quotas related to compensation.

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TABLE 7.4 LEVELS OF ORGANIZATIONAL SALES PLANNING LEVEL PURPOSE: WHAT IS PLANNED WHO (USUALLY) IS INVOLVED 1. Marketing Organizational goals (increase in market share or penetration, increase in customers, increase in sales dollars and units sold) Upper management and sales and marketing executives 2. Regional plan Priorities (which regions, markets, and products to emphasize) Regional and district sales managers (which input from sales reps) 3. District plan Dollar allotment (for promotion, advertising, new employees, sales incentives, and so on) District managers and sales representatives 4. Territorial plan Goals for number of new customers and for increased business with old customers in each region and territory Sales representatives

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S ELLING BY O BJECTIVES S ETS F UTURE T ARGETS Two basic steps to implementing sales strategies: Step 1: Organize the jobs. Step 2: Define annual objectives in important areas.

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FIGURE 7.2 THE FOUR MAJOR AREAS TO ESTABLISH OBJECTIVES WITH EACH SALESPERSON Step 1: Organizing the Job Step 2: Defining Annual Objectives SALES MANAGEMENT Salesperson Account Management Call Management Self-Management Territorial Management Regular Problem Solving Innovative Portfolio of Accounts Potentials Coverage Records Order Size Penetration Reports Customer Satisfaction Preparation Selling Technique Training Communication Buyer Behavior Impact Handling Resistance Appearance Manner Communication Skills Abilities Attitudes Selling Abilities Limits Potential Business Size Customer Base Prospects Leads Market Share Growth Trade Relations Dealer Relations

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Treating the territory as a business. Managing each account. S ELLING BY O BJECTIVES S ETS F UTURE T ARGETS

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Build the stars. Harvest the cash cows. Fix the problems. Divest the dogs. Tactical plan for managing accounts:

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Treating the territory as a business. Managing each account. Managing each call. S ELLING BY O BJECTIVES S ETS F UTURE T ARGETS

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Is the sales rep properly armed with information, leads, and materials before the call occurs? Is the sales rep applying the major principles of selling technique during the presentation? Or is the sales rep inventing his or her own and perhaps making every mistake every salesperson in history has made? Has the salesperson planned some coherent attack for the sales presentation, and is it working well? Questions about the content of calls:

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Does the sales rep have enough training in communication, in meeting sales resistance, in understanding buyer behavior, in improving call impact, in gaining greater account penetration, in follow-through methods to do the job? Does the sales rep have enough knowledge of the product and its applications, service and system backup, and technical problems to handle the toughest calling situation? Questions about the content of calls: continued

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Treating the territory as a business. Managing each account. Managing each call. Managing oneself. S ELLING BY O BJECTIVES S ETS F UTURE T ARGETS

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Since selling involves making contact with strangers, dress, style, demeanor, and personal decorum are part of the salesperson’s tool kit . Communication skills, memory, logical speaking habits, and writing competence are vested in the person. Attitudes and outlook toward the job, the product, the company, and the customers all have an important bearing in the results to be achieved. The knowledge of selling techniques, what the various kinds are and how and when to use them, are personally vested in the sales rep and can be produced and polished by training. Self-management in selling includes the following:

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B ASIC L EVELS OF I NDIVIDUAL O BJECTIVES Regular, ongoing, and recurring objectives. Problem-solving objectives. Innovative or creative objectives. The highest level of excellence is reserved for people who are attaining all three.

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T HE P ROCEDURES FOR S ETTING O BJECTIVES AND Q UOTAS WITH S ALESPEOPLE Prepare the way. Schedule conferences with each salesperson. Prepare a written summary of goals agreed upon. Optional group meeting to share objectives.

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FIGURE 7.3 SELLING BY OBJECTIVES FORM

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A G OOD O BJECTIVE AND Q UOTA P LAN IS SMART S pecific M easurable A ttainable R ealistic T ime specific

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Test 1: Does this quota state exactly what the intended result is? Test 2: Does this quota specify when the intended result is to be accomplished? Test 3: Can the intended result be measured? A simple three-way test to judge how well quotas and objectives are written:

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S ELLING-BY- O BJECTIVES M ANAGEMENT Selling by objectives (SBO) is the process elaborated on earlier whereby the manager and salesperson jointly identify common goals, define major areas of responsibility, and agree on the results expected.

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FIGURE 7.4 SETTING OBJECTIVES AND QUOTAS IS A TWO-WAY PROCESS BETWEEN MANAGER AND SALESPERSON

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T HE S ALES T ERRITORY IS W HERE Q UOTAS ARE M ADE The sales territory is “where the action is!”

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T HE B OTTOM L INE Quotas are important to a company because they establish the “end state” sought, and they change according to external and internal forces. Many different types of quotas exist. Methods for setting quotas may vary. Setting a sales quota can be an involved process. Selling by objectives (SBO) is a common concept and is widely used by sales organizations.

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