Athena_and_Her_City

Views:
 
Category: Education
     
 

Presentation Description

No description available.

Comments

Presentation Transcript

Athena and Her City Copyright Nancy Gluck 2006:

Athena and Her City Copyright Nancy Gluck 2006

PowerPoint Presentation:

When you visit Athens and walk the streets of the old town, you can look up and see the rock of the Acropolis, with the remains of the Parthenon on top.

PowerPoint Presentation:

To understand Athens and the Acropolis, you need to know the story of Athena.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Athena is the goddess of wisdom. She protects Athens, and Athenians have honored her.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Athens and its port, Piraeus, are located in Attica, in southern Greece.

PowerPoint Presentation:

At first a small, but fertile plain supported the city-state of Athens. Later, as the city grew, Athens needed to import grain to feed its people.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Piraeus was a good port, but harder to defend than Athens, with its Acropolis. The ancient Greeks constructed long walls to connect Athens with its port during times of siege.

PowerPoint Presentation:

In Athens today, climb to the high point, the top of Lykabettos Hill.

PowerPoint Presentation:

See how the city has filled the Plain of Attica.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Piraeus is in the distance, and on a rocky outcrop – the Acropolis – you can see the Parthenon.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Athena, one of the 12 gods of Olympus, was with Athens from the beginning. Legend says that Lykabettos Hill was formed when Athena accidentally dropped a rock on her way to fortify the Acropolis.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Athena’s father was Zeus. Greek Gods

PowerPoint Presentation:

Zeus was the embodiment of power and virility. Although married to Hera, goddess of marriage and childbirth, he had many affairs. For example, in the guise of a bull, he carried away Europa.

PowerPoint Presentation:

After he impregnated Metis, the goddess of cunning, Zeus turned Metis into a fly. He swallowed her so that she could not bear a son who might be a rival.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Inside Zeus, Metis began to make armor for her unborn child. She pounded on the metal

PowerPoint Presentation:

Zeus then developed such a headache that he asked Hephaistos, the god of the forge, to strike his head with a hammer. He did, and Athena sprang forth, adult and fully armed.

PowerPoint Presentation:

On another occasion, Hephaistos tried to rape Athena. When she rejected him, his sperm fell on the ground and a son, Erichthonius (Erechtheus), was born. Perhaps feeling somewhat responsible, Athena adopted Erichthonius and became his foster mother.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Athena kept him in a basket, guarded by her sacred snake. Later, he became the legendary king of Athens.

PowerPoint Presentation:

In Greek art, you can identify Athena by her attributes – Helmet Shield Spear Her breastplate, or aegis, with its fringe of snakes Her owl

PowerPoint Presentation:

Each representation of Athena will display only some of her attributes

PowerPoint Presentation:

Athena helped many Greek heroes, including Heracles and Perseus. After Perseus slew the Medusa, whose face turned men to stone, he gave the head to Athena.

PowerPoint Presentation:

She placed it on her Aegis or on her shield.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Homer says Athena sided with the Greeks during the Trojan War.

PowerPoint Presentation:

She helped Odysses to return home to Ithaca when the war was over.

PowerPoint Presentation:

From her mother, Metis, she inherited many skills. In a famous weaving competition, she turned Arachne into a spider.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Athena was honored with many titles– Athena Polias Athena Parthenos Athena Promachos Athena Nike Athena Hygeia Athena Ergane Pallas Athena

PowerPoint Presentation:

The Greeks held an annual festival to honor Athena. Every four years participants from all over Greece joined in the Grand Panathenaic Festival, which featured processions and games.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Each winner in the games received a vase of olive oil. One side held a picture of the event.

PowerPoint Presentation:

The other side of the vase showed Athena.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Athena’s monuments dominate the Acropolis today, as they did in the time of the ancient Greeks.

PowerPoint Presentation:

The original “high city” of Athens is partly a natural rocky outcrop and partly a construction over the centuries.

PowerPoint Presentation:

In ancient Athens, the Acropolis was filled with temples and statues to honor Athena and celebrate the military success of the Athenians.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Wealthy citizens dedicated many of the statues on the Acropolis. The largest statue was of Athena. Ships in the harbor at Pireaus could see the sun glinting from Athena’s spear.

PowerPoint Presentation:

The remains of four important buildings stand on the Acropolis today: The Propyleia The Temple of Athena Nike The Erechteum The Parthenon All were associated with Athena in some way.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Processions in honor of Athens and its patron goddess marched through the Agora on the Panathenaic Way.

:

The Panathenaic Way led to the Propyleia, the entry which provided a focus for religious processions.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Today’s visitor enters the Acropolis on pavement made up entirely of old stones.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Here are the remains of the Propyleia and the walkway.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Below the walkway are the stones from a retaining wall installed during the Bronze Age.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Archaeologists fine evidence of occupation going back to the stone age.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Now, despite the intrusive scaffolding, one can imagine the impression the entrance made on the marchers of long ago.

PowerPoint Presentation:

The Temple of Athena Nike recognizes Athena as the personification of Victory.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Athens was such a desirable city that the gods competed to protect it. In the contest, Poseidon struck the rock of the Acropolis and opened a well. Athena offered the olive tree. Athena won.

PowerPoint Presentation:

The Erechtheum honored Erechtheus, Athena’s foster son, Athena herself, and Poseidon, the loser of the contest. Some people believe the caryatid porch marks the site where Poseidon struck the rock.

PowerPoint Presentation:

All the original sculptures from the Acropolis are in museums today, including these ladies. Five are in in Athens, while the sixth was taken to the British Museum in London. All sculptures now on the buildings are copies.

PowerPoint Presentation:

The Acropolis dominates historic Athens, and the Parthenon dominates the Acropolis.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Before there was a Parthenon, an earlier temple honored Athena Polias, the goddess of the city. The Persians destroyed it in 480 bce.

PowerPoint Presentation:

The temple of Athena Polias was built for a very early and primitive olive-wood statue of Athena. This statue received new clothing every four years at the Panathenaic Festival. The statue was kept in the Erechtheum.

PowerPoint Presentation:

The Persians also destroyed the first version of the Parthenon, which was under construction at the time.

PowerPoint Presentation:

In this relief, Athena mourns the destruction of her temples by the Persians.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Led by Pericles, the Greeks rebuilt the Parthenon, placing the new building on the foundation of the building the Persians had destroyed.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Every tourist sends a postcard. This picture was taken before the current restoration work.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Any postcard now would be dominated by scaffolding.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Tourists can no longer walk inside.

PowerPoint Presentation:

The Acropolis has a large inventory of parts of ancient buildings.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Columns, for example, were constructed from drums of graduated sizes. With enough old drums, you can recreate columns.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Drum pieces can be joined with new material to recreate old columns. Modern restoration specialists distinguish between new and old materials.

PowerPoint Presentation:

The exterior design of the Parthenon is an example of the Doric order.

PowerPoint Presentation:

The building contained two rooms, surrounded by a colonnaded porch. The larger room was entered from the east. It contained one of Athens’ greatest treasures.

PowerPoint Presentation:

The statue of Athena displayed her attributes. She holds Nike, personifica-tion of Victory, on her right hand.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Created by Phidias, the statue was 36 feet tall. Like our Statue of Liberty, it was a construction -- in this case, of gold and ivory mounted on a frame.

PowerPoint Presentation:

The original statue has been lost. Reproductions are based on old descriptions and on surviving contemporary copies of Phidias’ work.

PowerPoint Presentation:

The two rooms were not connected inside. The “back room” served as a treasury, a depository for tribute sent to Athens and Athena.

PowerPoint Presentation:

The Parthenon has been rebuilt, damaged, eroded, restored and re-restored. The work continues today. Reconstruction Since the Greeks gained independence from Turkey in 1830, they have treated the Parthenon as a great national symbol.

PowerPoint Presentation:

The Parthenon was extensively decorated with sculptures in low and high relief.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Since so many sculptures have been damaged or removed, experts today do not agree on the content and meaning of what remains.

PowerPoint Presentation:

The metope reliefs are difficult to see from below, and even more difficult to understand in their present condition.

PowerPoint Presentation:

To see any of the sculptures well, you must visit them in the museums of Athens and London.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Each metope must contain its image within a single square panel.

PowerPoint Presentation:

The following metope series have been identified: West side – battles between Greeks and Amazons North side – episodes from Trojan War East side – battle of the gods and giants South side – battle of the Greek Lapiths and centaurs

PowerPoint Presentation:

The actions on the frieze are easier to follow; about half of the original frieze is now in the British Museum (the Elgin Marbles).

PowerPoint Presentation:

Beginning in the southwest corner, the frieze protrays a double procession which meets in the center of the east side, above the main door.

PowerPoint Presentation:

In this central panel, young women carry a folded fabric. Most authorities believe this represents the presentation of a new peplos to the ancient statue of Athena Polias every four years at the Grand Panathenaic Festival.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Two other explanations have been suggested: The girls are preparing for a human sacrifice and the victim is carrying her own shroud. The cloak being presented once belonged to Noah, and it is being offered to the gods of the Greek pantheon as a symbol of the power Noah has lost.

PowerPoint Presentation:

The east and west pediments of the Parthenon were filled with sculptures in full relief.

PowerPoint Presentation:

The details are best seen in a museum, although the viewer loses the impact of the figures as part of the architecture.

PowerPoint Presentation:

The figures on the west pediment illustrated the contest between Poseidon and Athena. We have sculptural fragments and we have old drawings.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Here is one recreation of the central section of the pediment. Poseidon and his trident are being sent away by Athena and her olive tree.

PowerPoint Presentation:

The east pediment depicted the birth of Athena. Some of the end statues survived, but their role in the drama cannot be identified.

PowerPoint Presentation:

The center section was much damaged, so recreations vary greatly.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Here is one in which Zeus is seated with Athena on the right and Hephaistos on the left.

PowerPoint Presentation:

In this reconstruction of the central section Athena, Zeus and Hera stand together with Hephaistos on the right.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Whatever the details, Athena had the leading role on both pediments. The following example from the reproduction of the Parthenon in Nashville gives some idea of the power of the original sculptures.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Here is a summary of how the Parthenon and its sculptures were assembled. Parthenon Reconstruction

PowerPoint Presentation:

Athena’s temple has served her, but it has also served other gods. Its history is long... 490-480 bce – construction of first Parthenon begun 480 bce – first Parthenon destroyed by Persians 449 bce – Pericles proposes rebuilding the Acropolis 438 bce – Classical Parthenon is complete

PowerPoint Presentation:

The Greeks, Macedonians and Romans all honored Athena (Minerva) so the Parthenon continued to be her temple during Hellenistic and Roman times. New rulers asserted themselves. In 334 bce Alexander the Great installed Persian shields on the Parthenon to commemorate his own victory over the Persians.

PowerPoint Presentation:

When the Roman emperor Nero came for a visit in 61 ce, the Athenians found it wise to rededicate Athena’s temple to him. Evidence of the inscription can still be seen on the stones.

PowerPoint Presentation:

The later emperor Hadrian was an admirer of Classical Greece. He helped to rebuild and enlarge Athens.

PowerPoint Presentation:

The Athenians made him a very handsome arch, which can still be seen in busy Athens today.

PowerPoint Presentation:

When Christianity became the official religion of the Eastern Roman Empire, worship of Athena was outlawed. In the 6 th century the Parthenon was converted to Hagia Sophia, an Orthodox Christian cathedral. This conversion may have saved the building by assuring its maintenance for many centuries.

PowerPoint Presentation:

The orientation of the building was reversed. Worshippers now entered from the west. The two chambers were connected by three doors.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Many of the sculptures were removed or defaced at the time of the conversion.

PowerPoint Presentation:

More changes lay ahead… 1204 – French invaded Athens, renamed the Parthenon Our Lady of Athens, and it became a Roman Catholic church. 1458 - Athens fell to the Turks who converted the Parthenon to a mosque, complete with minaret.

PowerPoint Presentation:

In 1670 the Parthenon was still well preserved. You can see the minaret and the Turkish buildings on the Acropolis.

PowerPoint Presentation:

The Turks stored munitions in the Parthenon and used it as a civilian shelter in a war with Venice. The Venetians shelled the building in 1674.

PowerPoint Presentation:

This 1836 painting shows the remains of the mosque inside the ruined Parthenon.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Many European visitors removed architectural fragments from the Parthenon. Lord Elgin, with “permission” from the Turks, removed a Caryatid and much of the Parthenon sculpture between 1801 and 1810.

PowerPoint Presentation:

He sold his collection to the British Museum in 1816, and you can see it there today.

PowerPoint Presentation:

The Greeks want the sculptures back and are reserving space for them in their new Acropolis Museum.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Between 1821 and 1831 the Greeks fought for their independence from the Turks.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Lord Byron, the English poet, came to assist the Greeks.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Byron’s death ended his efforts, but helped to bring European intervention on behalf of the Greeks.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Newly independent, the Greeks embraced a romantic concept of their identity. They looked back to the classical Athenian empire.

PowerPoint Presentation:

They made Athens their capital and installed a monarchy, (now gone).

PowerPoint Presentation:

The royal palace has become the Parliament building.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Athens today is a modern city of 4 million.

PowerPoint Presentation:

You can’t dig a hole in this modern city without encountering the past. The new metro includes an display of the artifacts found during its construction.

PowerPoint Presentation:

And what of Athena and her temples? After independence, archeologists “restored” the damaged Parthenon.

PowerPoint Presentation:

From this…

PowerPoint Presentation:

To this…

PowerPoint Presentation:

They also removed from the Acropolis all the structures which were installed after the time of Pericles (5 th century bce). The Romans, the Byzantines, the Turks – the evidence that they were here is gone.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Because of mistakes during the 19 th century restoration and damage caused by 20 th century air pollution, the Greeks are again restoring the buildings on the Acropolis.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Plenty of controversy remains: What period in a long history should the Acropolis represent? Should the Parthenon be completely restored to its appearance in the 5 th century bce? Where should those sculptures be – in Athens or the British Museum?

PowerPoint Presentation:

And what did the sculptures mean? Many interpretations have been offered, including a coded history of early mankind.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Athena’s importance was felt everywhere in ancient Greece. When you go to Cape Sounion…

PowerPoint Presentation:

In addition to the famous Temple of Poseidon, the god of the Sea...

PowerPoint Presentation:

You also find the remains of a temple to Athena. She was there to guard her rival’s temple.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Delphi was the mountain site of the famous temple of Apollo, where Greeks came to ask advice from the oracle and hear the sacred prophecies.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Guarding the road to Apollo’s temple was a temple to Athena, protector of gods and Greeks.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Today you find a copy of Athena’s Parthenon in Nashville, Tennessee.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Athena’s temples inspire buildings in Washington, D.C.

PowerPoint Presentation:

And in Southport, Connecticut.

PowerPoint Presentation:

She was the inspiration for England’s Britannia – shown here on postage stamps.

PowerPoint Presentation:

The large statues of Athena dramatize our need for a powerful female to protect us.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Under her Roman name, Minerva, she guards the entrance to Guadalajara.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Local artists created another version of Athena for Guadalajara’s Cow Parade.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Today, statues of Justice reminiscent of Athena stand on court houses across the United States.

PowerPoint Presentation:

The statue of Freedom watches over us from the top of our Capitol dome…

The End:

The End

authorStream Live Help