Study on the disposal of solid waste in Pharmaceutical industry


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Treatment of solid pharmaceutical waste has great importance because of, Safety related properties Health related properties


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Study on the disposal of solid waste in Pharmaceutical industry:

Study on the disposal of solid waste in Pharmaceutical industry Abubacker Siddieq K K (0681001) Under the guidance of Mr. M. Rengasamy, M.Tech Bharathidasan Institute of Technology Tiruchirappalli-24

What are Solid wastes?:

What are Solid wastes? Garbage Refuse Sludge from waste treatment, water treatment plants, pollution control facilities Industrial wastes Discarded materials including solid semisolid, liquid or contained gaseous materials from industries, commercial, mining, agricultural, etc. In addition to defining “solid waste,” which includes liquids and gases , RCRA (pronounced rec-rah) also defines hazardous waste — those chemicals or formulations deemed to be so detrimental to the environment that they must be segregated for special waste management and cannot be sewered or land filled. A number of drug entities and pharmaceutical formulations meet the definition of hazardous waste, including such common drugs as epinephrine, nitro-glycerine, warfarin, nicotine, and seven common chemotherapy agents . *Journal of the Pharmacy Society of Wisconsin Nov/Dec 2002 17

What are Pharmaceutical Solid wastes?:

What are Pharmaceutical Solid wastes? • Pharmaceutical industry wastes, • spilled , • expired, • contaminated and • unused drugs and • pressurized containers. Guidelines for the internal management of solid wastes at health care centers (24)

What are Pharmaceutical industrial Solid wastes?:

What are Pharmaceutical industrial Solid wastes? Off-spec or outdated raw material or product Spent solvents Reaction residues Used filter media Still bottoms Used chemical reagents Dusts from filtration or air pollution control equipment Packaging wastes Laboratory wastes Spills * Profile of the Pharmaceutical manufacturing industry EPA/310-R-97-005

What is the importance of treatment and disposal of these wastes?:

Treatment of solid pharmaceutical waste has great importance because of, Safety related properties Health related properties What is the importance of treatment and disposal of these wastes? Waste reduction facilities Force of regulations (handling/disposal) Market demands

Safety related properties::

Corrosive (solvents and acids used in the preparation of some medicine) Flammable (most of the medicines containing alcohol, sprit, tincture etc.) Reactive (organic acids used as a component in the preparation of some pain killers and syrups) Ignitable (most of the solvents used in the preparation of medicines ) Safety related properties:

Health related properties::

Irritant (allergic response e.g. penicillin, ferric compounds) Toxic when ingestion (medicines for external use e.g. tincture, potassium iodide etc.) Radioactive (medicines used for chemotherapy and cancer treatment) Carcinogenic ( persistent use of some medicines ) Treatment of pharmaceutical waste is very important because improper disposal may also have an adverse effect on land values, create public nuisances , otherwise; the failure or inability to salvage and reuse such materials economically results in the unnecessary waste and depletion of natural resources. Health related properties :

Solid Pharmaceutical Waste Generation::

The generation of pharmaceutical wastes can be broken down into three main stages: R esearch and d evelopment, The conversion of organic and natural substances into bulk pharmaceutical substances or ingredients through fermentation, extraction , and/or chemical synthesis, The formulation of the final pharmaceutical product. Solid Pharmaceutical Waste Generation :

*Chemosphere 74 (2008) 131–141:

* Chemosphere 74 (2008) 131–141

Steps for the Management of solid pharmaceutical waste::

Getting Started Understanding the regulations 1. Defining hazardous waste categories 2. Managing combinations of hazardous waste 3. Distinguishing between wastes 4. Understanding hazardous waste management Considering Best Management Practices for Non-Regulated Pharmaceutical Wastes Performing a Drug Inventory Review - Gathering Drug Specific Data Minimizing Pharmaceutical Waste Assessing Current Practices- by review and analysis Taking On the Challenge – labelling and guidance Considering the Management Options Getting Ready for Implementation Launching the Program Steps for the Management of solid pharmaceutical waste:

Characterization of solid wastes:

Opportunities for waste reduction Rate of waste generation Whether or not the waste is hazardous Suitability of the waste for landfilling Physical properties as they relate to suitability for landfilling Chemical properties as they relate to suitability for landfilling Estimation of leachate characteristics Suitability of the waste for incineration Estimated characteristics of stack emissions Estimated requirement for auxiliary fuel Estimated characteristics of ash Suitability of the waste for composting Characterization of solid wastes

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SOLID WASTES Waste Source reduction opportunity Further wastes Successful management Recycling/ Reuse opportunity yes no Recycle method Source reduction method yes NEED OF TREATMENT no yes no

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Solid Wastes If Hazardous Check suitability for l andfilling Check physical, chemical properties Check leachate characteristics l andfilling Selection of method of landfilling Landfilling ash Special methods Designing scrubber Requirement of scrubber Successful selection Analyzing for hazards Ash creation Selection of type of incinerator Check for other methods Check suitability for incineration Selecting drain disposal/ landfilling Exceeding Emissions limit yes No Chemical: 1.Toxicity 2.Falmability 3.Reactivity 4.corrosivity Physical: 1.Structural 2.stability 1.Cost 2.Fuel 3. What's up with a)co 2 ,stack emission b)Residual ash yes No No No yes yes ok yes

How to identify the hazardous wastes?:

Hazardous wastes divided into: Characteristic wastes Listed wastes How to identify the hazardous wastes? Exhibit hazardous property Ignitability Corrosivity Reactivity Toxicity

Listed Wastes:

Listed Wastes Listed wastes are wastes from generic industrial processes , wastes from certain sectors of industry, and unused pure chemical products and formulations . Because these wastes are dangerous enough.

Other conditions::

When a drug waste containing a listed constituent of concern is discarded or intended to be discarded, it must be managed as hazardous waste if two conditions are satisfied: (1) The discarded drug waste contains a sole active ingredient that appears on the list . (2) It has not been used for its intended purpose . A container that has held a listed waste is not considered unless it has been: (1) Triple rinsed, (2) The rinse is managed as hazardous waste There are no concentration limits or dilution exclusions for listed hazardous wastes. If saline or another solvent is added to a listed chemical, additional listed hazardous waste is generated. Other conditions:

Steps for the disposal of solid pharmaceutical waste::

Segregation Volume reduction Incineration Ultimate disposal Steps for the disposal of solid pharmaceutical waste:


The objectives of pharmaceutical waste treatment/Disposal are the destruction or recovery for reuse and/or the conversion of these substances to innocuous forms that are acceptable for uncontrolled disposal. OBJECTIVE OF PHARMACEUTICAL WASTE TREATMENT/DISPOSAL

Treatment and disposal:

Landfilling Incinerators Composting There is not much treatment of solid pharmaceutical waste . Most of the time solid waste is disposed of . Separation and reprocessing of some of the solid waste also done for recycling purpose. Treatment and disposal Most common

Factors require consideration::

Potential hazardous nature of the waste material Relatively large volume of material that must be safely and efficiently handled , transported and/or disposed of. Effect of the disposal method on the public and environment Social factors Cost economics Factors require consideration:


Incineration is one of the best techniques for treating hazardous waste. It can be use to recover heat energy. Use as volume reduction method. Use for preheating combustion air. Decontamination of toxic material can be done by destroying the organic molecular structure through oxidation or thermal degradation. Long-term cost of land disposal is likely to be greater than the short-term cost of incineration. * ( Crumpler and Martin, 1987;US. EPA ) Incineration

If incineration we have to focus on::

Is the waste or combination of wastes suitable for incineration? What type of incineration equipment is required ? What capacity is needed? What is the incineration cost concerning other management options? If incineration we have to focus on:


Grate Type of Incinerator It is a low temperature incinerator. It is useful for volume reduction of bulky waste. Hearth-Type Incinerator Most solid hazardous waste is burned in hearth-type systems of which there are several basic types: The rotary kiln (75%) A "controlled air" or "two chamber fixed hearth" system (15%) The multiple hearth incinerator (10%) The mono hearth (seldom used ) Fluidized-Bed Incinerator Liquids , sludge as well as uniformly sized solids can be incinerated in it. TYPES OF INCINERATORS

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Typical multiple-hearth incinerator

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Air pollution may results from the exhaust gases release, during incineration operation Release of pharmaceutical gases into the atmosphere is strongly prohibited and air pollution control is required particulate removal from flue gases removal of acid gases Particulate and acid gases are usually controlled with scrubbers . These scrubbers operate on two mechanisms: physical removal of particulate, and chemical removal by absorption and neutralization of the acid gases AIR POLLUTION CONTROL FROM PHARMACEUTICAL GASEOUS EMISSION

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Particulate removal can be done by dry, wet or by wet-dry combination methods. The dry, particulate removal methods include Impaction-baffles and screens Centrifugal separation -- cyclone separators Filtration-fabric filters Electrostatic-precipitators Wet methods , which employ water as a medium, include Impaction-packed and tray columns Centrifugal separation-wet cyclones Particle wetting-ventures and similar units Particle conditioning and wetting-collision scrubber Electrostatic-wet ionizer/precipitator

Typical Scrubbing Systems:

Wet spray towers Dry spray towers Packed wet scrubbers Plate Scrubbers Electrostatic precipitator Wet electrostatic precipitators Typical Scrubbing Systems

Ultimate disposal:

Landfill disposal Common land filling methods are, Mixing with soil Shallow burial Combination of these Deep-well disposal Material pumped into subsurface rock separated from other groundwater supplies by impermeable rock or clay. (In USA more than 100 wells are used for disposal) Land burial disposal Disposal accomplished by either near-surface or deep burial. In near-surface burial material could be disposed directly into the ground or is disposed in stainless steel tanks or concrete lined pits beneath the ground. At the present time, only near surface burial is used for disposal of pharmaceutical wastes Ultimate disposal

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Ocean dumping and detonation are some of expensive waste disposal methods Detonation is a processes of exploding a quantity of waste with sudden violence Thermal Shock Mechanical Shock Electrostatic charge This method mainly used for flammable and volatile waste materials


Landfills are physical facilities used for the disposal of residual solid wastes in the surface soils of the earth. Landfill as a system designed and constructed to contain discarded waste so as to minimize releases of contaminants to the environment. Solid pharmaceutical waste usually incinerated but in some places (e.g. California) most of the solid PW is landfilled. Landfills are necessary because, Other hazardous waste management technologies such as source reduction, recycling, and waste minimization cannot totally eliminate the waste generated and Hazardous waste treatment technologies such as incineration and biological treatment produce residues . LANDFILLS

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Landfill liner system Final cover system Cover/cap system

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Leachate treatment by evaporation vessel Gas venting system


Composting: Simple composting Composting with Forced aeration

Determining the suitability of solid waste disposal::

Technical feasibility of the construction and operation of the installation for each hazardous chemical Environmental control The social importance of other interests in the exploitation and utilisation of the area Economics of construction and operation of the installation Determining the suitability of solid waste disposal:

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WASTE SALICYLIC ACID MANUFACTURING PROCESSS Method of disposal: Salicylic acid is a non-hazardous waste but Flexible collodion sludge is an ignitable hazardous waste. So incineration followed by landfilling is followed.

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Ibu profen manufacturing process Method of disposal : Even Dichromatic layer is the waste is utilised for leather factories, the waste from leather industries are contaminated with these chemicals. It is also treated by incineration and the ash contents are disposed by landfilling since ibuprofen is micro pollutant.


Treatment of pharmaceutical solid/gaseous waste is important from health and safety related properties There is not much treatment of solid pharmaceutical waste. Most of the time solid waste is disposed of Disposal of solid pharmaceutical waste and elimination of the emissions from incinerator operations are very important to protect the land, water bodies and atmospheric environment Landfills are most popular final disposal technique Proper design of incinerators and landfills is important to fulfil the regulatory requirements Proper planning, design, and operation are the key points involved in the disposal of such waste Discussion


Various Treatment and disposal methods of pharmaceutical solid waste are discussed and these results, there are not much treatment processes of solid pharmaceutical waste and the steps: segregation, volume reduction and incineration by fluidised bed, grate type and hearth type incinerators and disposal of ash by landfill is followed. Elimination of the emissions of acid gas from incinerators operations using packed bed scrubber are designed and discussed in this project by taking a typical composition of sludge waste and its flue gas and it is found that Landfills are most popular final disposal technique for non-hazardous material. Conclusion:


1 . Charlotte A. Smith, RPh , MS Journal of the Pharmacy Society of Wisconsin Nov/Dec 2002 17 2. Guidelines for the internal management of solid wastes at health care centers (24) 3. Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Handbook, Waste management 25-(12,13) 4. (Crumpler and Martin, 1987;US. EPA), (US.EPA, 1998) 5. Profile of the Pharmaceutical manufacturing industry EPA/310-R-97-005 6. RCRA orientation manual, hazardous waste regulations 7. Pollution prevention and abatement handbook , WORLD BANK GROUP, July 1998 8. Hazardous Waste Handbook for Health and Safety, William F. Martin, John M. Lippitt , Paul J. Webb 9. Industrial Waste Treatment Handbook, Frank Woodard, Ph.D., P.E., 10. 1000 terms in solid waste management, ISWA 1992 11. Biological Waste Treatment Survey, Edited by W. Rogalski and C. Fischer Schleiss , Published in Vienna 2006 12. Cleantech The Impact on Key Sectors in Europe, 13. Greening the Pharmaceutical Industry, , BWC Pharma Consulting, LLC 14. Forensic Science International 189 (2009) 88–92 15. HERC -- Pharmaceutical Wastes, 16. Pharmaceutical Industry Source Reduction Assessment, http :// 17. H2E 10-Step Guide to Composting in Healthcare Facilities 18. Field Procedures Handbook for the Operation of Landfill Biogas Systems, Prepared by : International Solid Waste Association, Working Group for Sanitary Landfills 19. Pharmaceutical Waste Survey, Publication SQG-RR-6(11/02) rev. 4/03 April 2003 20. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 32 (2001) 85–103 21. Judith C. Madden∗, Steven J. Enoch, Mark Hewitt, Mark T.D. Cronin Toxicology Letters 185 (2009) 85–101 22. Sang D. Kima , Jaeweon Choa , In S. Kima , Brett J. Vanderfordb , Shane A. Snyderb,WATER RESEARCH 41 (2007) 1013 – 1021 23. Angela Yu-Chen Lin, Tsung-Hsien Yu, Cheng-Fang Lin, Chemosphere 74 (2008 ) ( 131–141) 24. Susan T. Glassmeyer , Elizabeth K. Hinchey, Susan E. Boehme, Christian G. Daughton , Ilene S. Ruhoy , Octavia Conerly , Rebecca L. Daniels , Lisa Lauer , Meg McCarthy, Environment International 35 (2009) 566–572 25. Matthew Kotchen , James Kallaos , Kaleena Wheeler , Crispin Wong , Margaret Zahller , Journal of Environmental Management 90 (2009) 1476–1482 26. Todd G. Nettesheim h, Kathy Sykes i, Virginia G. Thompson, Environment International 35 (2009) 566–572, (2009) 1476–1482 27. Osman Nuri A, Delia Teresa Sponza , Journal of Hazardous Materials 162 (2009 ) ( 730–735) (2007) 75–85 Reference:

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