Infectious Diseases

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Prepared by: Siddharth Srivastav IX A 40 Kendriya Vidyalaya Vehicle Factory Jabalpur . INFECTIOUS DISEASES

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Red - 40% Infectious Diseases. Blue - 60% Other Types Of Diseases.

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According to WHO : Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms , such as bacteria, viruses, parasites or fungi; the diseases can be spread, directly or indirectly, from one person to another. Zoonotic diseases are infectious diseases of animals that can cause disease when to transmitted humans. Infectious Disease

Difference between infectious disease and others: 

Difference between infectious disease and others Other diseases Deals with one population Risk  case Identifies causes Infectious disease Two or more populations A case is a risk factor The cause often known

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Humans: Infectious agents: Helminths, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, viruses. Vectors: Mosquito (protozoa-malaria), Blackfly (microfilaria-onchocerciasis) Animals: Dogs and sheep/goats – Echinococcus Mice and ticks – Borrelia infectious diseases

infectious disease : 

infectious disease A case is a risk factor … Infection in one person can be transmitted to others

Routes of transmission: 

Routes of transmission Direct Skin-skin Herpes type 1 Across placenta toxoplasmosis Through breast milk HIV Sneeze-cough Influenza Indirect Food-borne Salmonella Water-borne Hepatitis A Vector-borne Malaria Air-borne Chickenpox Exposure: A relevant contact – depends on the agent Skin, sexual intercourse, water contact, etc.

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Agent Host Environment Age Sex G enotype Behaviour N utritional status Health status Infectivity Pathogenicit y Virulence Immunogenicit y Antigenic stabi lity Survival W eather Housing G eography Occupational setting A ir quality F ood Factors Influencing Disease Transmission

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Infectious diseases according to its dangerous effects: Tuberculosis Malaria AIDS and Neglected Diseases

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Understanding infectious disease Infectious diseases are responsible for the million of deaths each year in developing countries. More than 9 millions new cases of and 0.5 million new cases of drug resistance TB occur each year. Each year, there are 1.3 to 3 million malaria deaths , up to 5 million of cases of malaria reported in Africa. World Health Organization, December 2006. An estimated 39.5 million people are living with HIV . 

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  Important increases in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, where there are some indications that infection rates have risen by more than 50% since 2004. In 2006, 2.9 million people died of AIDS-related illnesses. Young people (under 25 years old) account for half of all new HIV infections worldwide – around 6,000 become infected with HIV every day. There were 4.3 million new infections in 2006. CONTI…

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AIDS

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St. John‘s wort: St. John’s wort is widely prescribed by European physicians for its effectiveness in treating mild to moderate depression. It has gained popularity among AIDS sufferers and indeed, St. John’s wort demonstrates anti-viral and immune supportive properties in some studies. Herbal Supplementation of AIDS:

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Olive oils: Olive trees are widely cultivated throughout Mediterranean countries for its universally popular fruit. But olive trees have more to offer that just the olive and its delicious, healthful oil. The olive leaf has been used as a traditional medicine in health conditions including malaria, infections, cardiovascular diseases, and for improving general well being. Olive leaf contains a key active ingredient called " oleuropein, " that may have anti-viral properties.

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MALARIA

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In vivo antimalarial activity of Vernonia amygdalina. ABSTRACT : Extracts from the leaves and root bark of Vernonia amygdalina are assessed for antimalarial activity against drug-sensitive Plasmodium berghei in mice. A leaf and root-bark extracts of 500 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg or 125 mg/kg are used in a four-day suppression test and a Rane test of established infection. Leaf extract produced 67% suppression of parasitaemia in the four-day test, while root-bark extract produced 53.5% suppression. These results are significant when compared to a placebo

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Antimalarial activity of Tanzanian medicinal plants. ABSTRACT: Tanzanian medicinal plants were extracted and tested for in vitro antimalarial activity , using the multidrug resistant K1 strain of Plasmodium falciparum. Of 49 plants investigated, extracts of three plants were found to have an IC50 between 5-10 micrograms/ml, extracts of 18 other plants showed an IC50 between 10 and 50 micrograms/ml, all others were less active. The three most active extracts were obtained from the tubers of Cyperus rotundus (Cyperaceae), the rootbark of Hoslundia opposita . (Labiatae), and the rootbark of Lantana camara .

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Marketed formulations

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Fluerin plus: Black pepper 25% Kalmagh 15% Guduchi 15% Gund babul 10% Neem 10% Shyama tulsi 25%

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Tuberculosis

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Echinacea: 1) Used in Herbal Medicine to help fight off infections, especially of the upper respiratory tract. 2) Shorten the duration of upper respiratory tract infections. Wild rose: Supportive therapy in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections (e.g. common colds)

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Andrographis paniculata: Incease immunity. Black current: Helps to relieve the symptoms

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Mutivitamins Vitamin A Vitamin B12 Vitamin C Vitamin E Selenium Zinc Beta Carotene L-Carnitine Coenzyme Q10 Omega-3, Omeba-6 N-Acetyle Cystene Lactobacillus acidophilus L-Glutamine Vitamin B1 Sterols Nutritional suplementation: used in neglected diseases

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INFECTIOUS DISEASES

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Thank you