Martin Luther, Rebel and Reformer

Category: Education

Presentation Description

No description available.


Presentation Transcript


10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546 Martin Luther, Rebel and Reformer


Luther Luther


Luther's Parents Portrait of Luther by German artist Cranach Martin Luther in 1522 Hans Margarethe


Original home of Luder in Möhra,


Luther's Childhood Home Eisleben The city Eisleben , at the time of Luther, was the most important city of Count Mansfeld's holdings. Here Martin Luther was born on 10 Nov 1483 the son of the miner Hans Luder. The family emigrated from Thuringian Möhra and had rented a house on Langen Gasse (today Lutherstrasse 16) in the Petri quarter. A chamber on the courtyard side of the ground floor served as the birth room of Martin Luther.

Slide6: Eisleben Memorial at Luther's Birth House


Luther’s Birthplace East Germany Birthplace of Luther


The Luther's were poor and young Martin, was gifted with a great voice. Many times he literally had to sing for his supper! Mercy Frau Ursula Cotta often shared the family meal with him. Luther in Latin School (before University) in Eisenach from 1498-1501 Luther’s House, Eisnach


1501 Luther enters University of Erfurt 1502 Luther receives Baccalaureate degree and begins studying for his Masters 1505 Luther receives his Masters degree


Luther is caught by a thunderstorm on the way back to Erfurt from his parent's house and is probably struck by lightning July 2, 1505 http://


Back in Erfurt he calls all his friends for a party. Unknown to them it is a goodbye party. He will not go with them to Law school Luther


Augustinian Monastery, Erfurt 1505 Luther enters the Black Monastery in Erfurt,cntnt01,detail,0&cntnt01articleid=41&cntnt01returnid=51


“If ever there was a monk who will make it to heaven with monckery then I am that monk” Due to his talents the order decided that Luther must study for the priesthood


In order to be ordained to the priesthood in 1507 Luther had to say Mass


Luther tried to run away, his friends had to hold him


After the Terror at the altar he turned and there was his father and mother. Father said:” You claim you heard the voice of the Lord in that thunderstorm. Are you sure it was not the voice of the Devil. Scripture says ‘honor father and mother’


Henceforth Luther is a deeply troubled man. Could it be that he gave up everything and was possibly following the Evil One


Wittenberg Rome Luther goes to Rome 1510-11


Skull of Chrysostom Hail Holy Rome! Fragments of the Cross city of many relics


The Holy Stairs - the stairs believed to have been climbed by Jesus at the home of Pontius Pilate and moved to Rome - now at St John Lateran Basilica “ wether it be so”


Luther returns from Rome to Wittenberg, 1511 Town Hall and City Church, Wittenberg . Wittenberg with Castle church tower in background


Luther in the Monastery in Wittenberg


Luther’s torments are now greater then ever. He needed help!

Slide24: “If it had not been for Dr. Staupitz, I would have sunk in hell.” Luther’s wise and godly superior, Johannes von Staupitz recognized in Martin Luther great intellectual talents and helped him to channel his energies away from excessive introspection


After six hours of confessing I forgot a sin. I can not escape punishment! The Confessional does not work


His decisive religious enlightenment came during his study of the Letter to the Romans (1515-16) during which time he realized that people receive justice through the grace of God, not through good works: "For in it the righteousness of God is revealed through faith for faith; as it is written, "The one who is righteous will live by faith." (Romans 1:17) Breakthrough 1515 AD Luther's turn to the Bible


Indulgence letter Albrecht von Brandenburg, Archbishop of Mainz  Indulgence Sale Cardinal Albrecht of Mainz by Albrecht Dürer _Cardinal_Albrecht_of_Brandenburg_(Large_Cardinal).jpg


John Tetzel Selling Indulgences. Copy of the infamous Indulgence by Tetzel "As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs"


Luther John Tetzel Selling Indulgences.


Luther’s Response: Posting of 95 Theses, Oct.31, 1517 on Castle Church Door P ropositions dealing with indulgences, basis for a proposed academic disputation.


95 Theses Wittenberg, Castle Church. Castle Church Door with 95 Theses


LUCAS CRANACH THE ELDER (German, 1472-1553) Martin Luther Preaching, ca. 1539 Martin Luther Preaching his Biblical Discoveries. “The just shall live by faith”. Luther preaching by Schnorr Indulgences do not work!

Slide33: were Martin Luther Preached Wittenberg   Schlosskirche (Castle Church)  Stadtkirche (City Church)


Now they went on the attack Luther and Cajetan by Ferdinand Pauwels, 1872 The Church had enough of Luther

Slide35: Luther and Eck debate at the Leipzig Disputation Luther said: Christ, not pope, is head of church Eck accused Luther of being “Saxon Huss” Luther responded: “We are all Hussites if we believe the Bible to be true”. Luther’s agreement with the heretic Huss put him in great danger


Pope Leo X issues bull of excommunication against Luther. He has 60 days to recant. 1520 Arise, O Lord,.. “a wild boar…seeks to destroy (the Church)” Bull of Excommunication


Luther Burning Papal Bull


On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church , Wittenberg, 1520. This pamphlet, with Martin Luther's portrait, first appeared in Latin and was directed against the sacramental system . Of the seven sacraments, Luther considered only baptism and communion , and to some degree, confession, sacraments of Christ. No Turning Back after this Publication, 1520 The priests administer seven sacraments which impart “saving grace” . Without the sacraments the power of the Church is gone.


Decet Romanum Pontificem   (English: It Pleases the Roman Pontiff) January 3, 1521, Bull of Excommunication Pope ordered Luther to be sent to Rome but German citizens had a right to be heard by the German Government and the Emperor


Before the Emperor and Diet: Luther at Worms: 1521


Luther at Worms


Luther's Appearance at the Imperial Diet Luther's books were placed on a table. He was then asked if they were his works and whether he wanted to recant. Luther requested time to think over his reply and the next day he answered: "Unless I am convinced by Scripture and plain reason - I do not accept the authority of the popes and councils, for they have contradicted each other - my conscience is captive to the Word of God. I cannot and I will not recant anything for to go against conscience is neither right nor safe. God help me. Amen."


Charles V ban of Martin Luther Charles V


Luther carried off  to the Wartburg Luther saved by Frederick the Wise, Elector of Saxony. As Luther travelled back to Wittenberg, armed horsemen came out of the forest, dragged Luther from his wagon and took him to the Wartburg Castle. The kidnapping had been arranged by Prince Frederick in order to preserve Luther’s life. Despite the Emperor’s decree that anyone helping Luther was subject to the loss of life and property, Frederick risked his throne and life to protect his pastor and professor.,-Elector-of-Saxony-1057171-W#demo




Luther's study on the Wartburg Wartburg


Fight with the devil and throwing of ink well, Wartburg


In Luther’s absence on the Wartburg, Andreas Karlstadt and others instituted revolutionary changes, such as removal of images from the churches, the suppression of masses, and the abolition of the law of celibacy. These changes led to growing social unrest. Revolutionary changes in Wittenberg during Luther's absence on the Wartburg


Luther returned to Wittenberg, and in 8 days of intensive preaching, renounced many of Karlstadt’s innovations, stopped the rioting which threatened the reformation and overshadowed justification by faith and the the Gospel. In March 1522, Luther left the safety of the Wartburg and returned to Wittenberg


Luther stood up to the Pope and the Emperor and he was victorious. Luther realized that it was not enough to defeat the Catholic Church, but now he had to dedicate himself to building his Church


1.sola scriptura He based his Church on these Fundamentals


2. sola fide


3. Christ, the Center


Christ, the Center


4. Preaching is the center of Worship not the Eucharist


All Praise to Thee, Eternal God Christ Jesus Lay in Death's Strong Bands Dear Christians, One and All, Rejoice Dear Christians, One and All, Rejoice (German) Flung to the Heedless Winds From Depths of Woe I Cry to Thee From Depths of Woe I Cry to Thee (German) From Heaven Above (German) From Heaven Above (English) If God Had Not Been on Our Side If God Had Not Been on Our Side (German) In Peace and Joy I Now Depart In the Midst of Earthly Life (German) Isaiah, Mighty Seer, in Days of Old Lord, Keep Us Steadfast in Your Word Lord, Keep Us Steadfast in Your Word (German) May God Bestow on Us His Grace May God Bestow on Us His Grace (German) A Mighty Fortress (In German) A Mighty Fortress (In English): American Lutheran Version A Mighty Fortress (In English): Frederick H. Hedge version O Lord, Look Down from Heaven, Behold O Lord, Look Down from Heaven, Behold (German) O Lord, We Praise Thee O Lord, We Praise Thee (German) Our Father, Thou in Heaven Above Our Father, Thou in Heaven Above (German) Savior of the Nations, Come Savior of the Nations, Come (German) That Man a Godly Life Might Live (German) Thou Who Art Three in Unity We All Believe in One True God We All Believe in One True God (German) We Now Implore God the Holy Ghost We Now Implore God the Holy Ghost (German) A mighty fortress is our God, A bulwark never failing; Our helper He, amid the flood Of mortal ills prevailing, For still our ancient foe Doth seek to work us woe; his craft and power are great, And, armed with cruel hate, On earth is not his equal. Did we in our own strength confide, our striving would be losing, Were not the right Man on our side, The man of God's own choosing.   Dost ask who that may be? Christ Jesus, it is He; Lord Sabaoth is His  name, From age to age the same. And He MUST win the battle. And though this world, with devils filled, Should threaten to undo us We will not fear, for God hath willed His Truth to triumph through us. The prince of Darkness grim, We tremble not for him; his rage we can endure.  For lo! his doom is sure, One little Word shall fell him. That Word above all earthly powers - No thanks to them abideth; The Spirit and the gifts are ours, Through Him who with us sideth. Let goods and kindred go, This mortal life also; The body they may kill; God's Truth abideth still. His kingdom is forever Amen!! 5. Congregational Singing

Slide57: The Monk and Nun met and married 6. Marriage not Celibacy.

Slide58: Luther’s Marriage to nun Katharina von Bora, 1525

Slide59: Luther musiziert mit seiner Familie (Gemälde von Gustav Adolph Spangenberg, 1866. Museum der bildenden Künste Leipzig, Inventarnr. I. 234) Luther’s Family. Luther, the Family Man

Slide60: Luther’s Family. Luther, the Family Man


“My Katie is in all things so obliging and pleasing to me that I would not exchange my poverty for the riches of Croesus.” Portrait by Lucas Cranach the Elder (c. 1530). The  former monk and nun were happily married for 21 years. They modeled Protestant marriage and replaced the long-held belief that celibacy was the ideal state. 


Lutherhaus (Luther House), the former Augustinian monastery in Wittenberg The Luther family living room, where the conversations recorded by students in "Table Talk" (starting in 1531) took place.


" The observance of the seventh day was being revived in Luther's time by Carlstadt " ( Dr. White, Bishop of Ely , Treatise of the Sabbath, page 8). " Carlstadt held to the Divine authority of the Sabbath from the Old Testament. “ Sears' Life of Luther, page 402 ''Indeed, if Carlstadt were to write further about the Sabbath, Sunday would have to give way, and the Sabbath—that is to say, Saturday—must be kept holy.“ Luther, Against the Celestial Prophets, quoted in “Life of Martin Luther in Pictures,” page 147 . Carlstadt Luther's Failures, Rejects the Sabbath


However, this, I say, is not so restricted to any time, as with the Jews, that it must be just on this or that day; for in itself no one day is better than another ; but this should indeed be done daily; however, since the masses cannot give such attendance, there must be at least one day in the week set apart. But since from of old Sunday [the Lord's Day] has been appointed for this purpose, we also should continue the same, in order that everything be done in harmonious order, and no one create disorder by unnecessary innovation. Martin Luther, The Large Catechism The Third Commandment. Thou shalt sanctify the holy day. [Remember the Sabbath day to keep it holy.] The Small Catechism of Martin Luther C. The Third Commandment You must keep the Sabbath holy. Q. What does this mean? We must fear and love God, so that we will not look down on preaching or God's Word, but consider it holy, listen to it willingly, and learn it. Rejects the Sabbath


Luther's Failures Marburg Colloquy. Luther and Zwingli . Agreement on 14 out of 15 issues, but not on the Last Supper


    Fight with Erasumus Freedom or Bondage of the Will ? Luther's Failures vs


Luther did not like the bigamy of Philip of Hesse but did not stop it Luther's Failures,_Landgrave_of_Hesse_(1504-1567) 1523 marriage to the unattractive and sickly  Christine of Saxony 1540 married Margarethe von der Saale.


German Peasants' War, 1525 Martin Luther (1525). Against the Murderous, Thieving Hordes of Peasants . “Therefore let everyone who can, smite, slay, and stab, secretly or openly, remembering that nothing can be more poisonous, hurtful, or devilish than a rebel ...” Luther's Failures Against the Murderous, Thieving Hordes of Peasants .


Luther's Failures - hatred of Jews On the Jews and Their Lies by Martin Luther Luther argued that the Jews were no longer the chosen people but "the devil's people ": he referred to them with violent, vile language. [ Luther advocated setting synagogues on fire, destroying Jewish prayer books, forbidding rabbis from preaching, seizing Jews' property and money, and smashing up their homes, so that these "poisonous envenomed worms" would be forced into labour or expelled "for all time"


In his later years , Luther's health deteriorated badly and his writings became coarse and vitriolic.  His Against the Papacy at Rome Founded by the Devil of 1545 is especially vulgar What God thinks of the papacy From the mid-1530s on, Luther suffered from gout, headaches, high blood pressure, heart issues (angina), poor circulation, hemorrhoids, and kidney stones, not to mention the  Anfechtungen   ( assaults of the devil, depression etc)  Against the Papacy of Rome created by the Devil Luther's Failures – vulgarity


Martin Luther told Lucas Cranach to illustrate Luther’s  Against the Papacy at Rome, Founded by the Devil   (March 1545). Luther told him what to depict. “The cartoon shows the Pope and three cardinals being expelled from the anus of a female devil while three furies are nursing and caring for three infant popes . . . a graphic echo of Luther's assertion in his treatise that the pope had been born from the devil's behind." Pope Alexander VI by Martin Luther, 1545


Pope Leo X Dr. Eck


Language and Lack of Control of the Tongue Luther described Catholics as "the devil's whore-church" (Grisar, IV, 288) who "stuff our mouths with horse-dung" (Grisar, IV, 321) Luther's typical descriptions of various Catholics: Crowned donkey, abandoned, senseless man, excrement of hogs and asses, impudent royal windbag, arrant fool. (Grisar, IV, 302; describing King Henry VIII) Liar, mad bloodhound, murderer, traitor, assassin of souls, arch-knave, dirty pig and devil's child, nay, the devil himself. (Grisar, IV, 302; describing Joachim I, Elector of Brandenburg) Mad, bloodthirsty murderer, a blind and hardened donkey, who ought to be put to scratch for dung-beetles in the manure-heaps of the Papists. (Grisar, IV, 302; describing Hoogstraaten, a Cologne Dominican) List of Luther's crude statements:


Luther's Death Eisleben House where Luther died 18 February 1546 Bed where Luther died Melanchthon wrote: “Dead is the charioteer of Israel, who has led the church in these last times


Luther's Death Room in which Luther died Eisleben House where Luther died


Luther's Death Luther's tombstone in the Castle Church in Wittenberg. Funeral Sermon


I hope that with this presentation you see Martin Luther more clearly, as the man that he was – a man of great passions with incredible achievements used by God to recover the gospel, but a man with human flaws nonetheless

authorStream Live Help