Slide 1: NUCLEAR POWER PLANT NUCLEAR ENERGY: NUCLEAR ENERGY Nuclear potential energy is the potential energy of the particles inside an atomic nucleus. The nuclear particles are bound together by the strong nuclear force. TYPES OF NUCLEAR REACTIONS: TYPES OF NUCLEAR REACTIONS Fusion reactions — two light nuclei join to form a heavier one, with additional particles (usually protons or neutrons) thrown off to conserve momentum. Fission reactions — a very heavy nucleus, spontaneously or after absorbing additional light particles (usually neutrons), splits into two or sometimes three pieces. (α decay is not usually called fission.) Spallation — a nucleus is hit by a particle with sufficient energy and momentum to knock out several small fragments or, smash it into many fragments. NUCLEAR FISSION : NUCLEAR FISSION Nuclear fission is a nuclear reaction in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei), often producing free neutrons and photons (in the form of gamma rays). Nuclear fission diagrammatic representation HOW IT WORKS??: HOW IT WORKS?? LAYOUT OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANT: LAYOUT OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANT NUCLEAR REACTOR: NUCLEAR REACTOR A nuclear reactor is a device in which nuclear chain reactions are initiated, controlled, and sustained at a steady rate, as opposed to a nuclear bomb, in which the chain reaction occurs in a fraction of a second and if uncontrolled causing an explosion. TYPES OF NUCLEAR RECATOR: TYPES OF NUCLEAR RECATOR BOILING WATER REACTOR PRESSURIZED WATER REACTOR BOILING WATER REACTOR: BOILING WATER REACTOR PRESSURIZED WATER REACTOR: PRESSURIZED WATER REACTOR CONTROL RODS: CONTROL RODS A control rod is a rod made of chemical elements capable of absorbing many neutrons. They are used in nuclear reactors to control the rate of fission of uranium and plutonium The control rods essentially contain neutron absorbers like, boron, cadmium or indium. NUCLEAR FUEL OR FUEL RODS: NUCLEAR FUEL OR FUEL RODS Nuclear fuel is a material that can be 'consumed' by fission or fusion to derive nuclear energy. The most common fissile nuclear fuels are Uranium 235 ( 235 U) and Plutonium 239( 239 Pu). TURBINES: TURBINES A turbine is a rotary engine that extracts energy from a fluid flow and converts it into useful work. The simplest turbines have one moving part, a rotor assembly, which is a shaft or drum with blades attached. FEED PUMP: FEED PUMP Steam coming out of the turbine, flows through the condenser for condensation and recirculated for the next cycle of operation. The feed pump circulates the condensed water in the working fluid loop . CONDENSER : CONDENSER The objective of the condenser are to reduce the turbine exhaust pressure to increase the efficiency and to recover high quality feed water in the form of condensate & feed back it to the steam generator without any further treatment. Condenser is a device or unit which is used to condense vapor into liquid. COOLING TOWER: COOLING TOWER Water circulating through the condenser is taken to the cooling tower for cooling and reuse. Cooling towers are heat removal devices used to transfer process waste heat to the atmosphere. POWER PLANTS IN INDIA: POWER PLANTS IN INDIA Power station Operator State Type Units Total Capacity (MW) Kaiga NPCIL Karnataka PHWR 220x3 660 Kakrapar NPCIL Gujarat PHWR 220x2 440 Kalpakkam NPCIL Tamil Nadu PHWR 220x2 440 Narora NPCIL Uttar Pradesh PHWR 220x2 440 Rawatbhata NPCIL Rajasthan PHWR 100x1, 200x1,220x2 740 Tarapur NPCIL Maharashtra BWR (PHWR) 160x2, 540x2 1400 Nuclear Power ADVANTAGES: ADVANTAGES Nuclear power costs about the same as coal, so it's not expensive to make. Does not produce smoke or carbon dioxide, so it does not contribute to the greenhouse effect. Produces huge amounts of energy from small amounts of fuel. Produces small amounts of waste. Nuclear power is reliable. DISADVANTAGES: DISADVANTAGES High risks: It is technically impossible to build a plant with 100% security. The energy source for nuclear energy is Uranium. Uranium is a scarce resource, its supply is estimated to last only for the next 30 to 60 years depending on the actual demand. DISADVANTAGES: DISADVANTAGES Nuclear power plants as well as nuclear waste could be preferred targets for terrorist attacks.. During the operation of nuclear power plants, radioactive waste is produced, which in turn can be used for the production of nuclear weapons.