Basics of English Grammar : Basics of English Grammar Building Blocks of English : Building Blocks of English The Parts of Speech Slide 3: 1. Noun
4. Adjective 5. Adverb
8. Interjection What are their Functions? : What are their Functions? 1. Naming Noun: Harry, Bangalore, Cat, Table, Happiness
2. Action Verb: Eat, Drink, Die, Live, Dance
3. Substitution Pronoun: I, We, He, Him, You, Your
4. Noun Modifying Adjective: Happy, Beautiful, Satisfied
5. Verb Modifying Adverb: quietly, hard, fast, often, never
6. Position of the object, Preposition: on, in, at, over, below
7. Joining Conjunction: and, or, but, because, if, though
8. Emotional Interjection: Alas! Hurrah! Bravo! Ouch! Articles : Articles Definite
He is the best boy in class.
This is the book I wanted.
I want a book from the library.
I got a call from a customer. The customer was polite. The A, An Noun : Noun What are Nouns?The simple definition is: a person, place, animal, idea, concept, emotion, or thingteacher, school, book
Countable Nouns, Uncountable NounsWhy is this important? Why do some nouns have no plural?dog/dogs, rice, hair(s)
Proper Nouns (Names)Do we say "Atlantic Ocean" or "the Atlantic Ocean"? Should I write "february" or "February"?Shirley, Mr Jeckyll, Thailand, April, Sony Adjective : Adjective An adjective "qualifies" or "modifies" a noun (a big dog).
Adjectives can be used before a noun (I like Chinese food) or after certain verbs (It is hard).
We can often use two or more adjectives together (a beautiful young French lady).
Determiners the, a/an, this, some, any
Comparative Adjectivesricher, more exciting
Superlative Adjectivesthe richest, the most exciting Verb : Verb The verb is king in English. The shortest sentence contains a verb. You can make a one-word sentence with a verb, for example: "Stop!”
Verbs are sometimes described as "action words“/"doing" something. For example, words like run, fight, do and work all convey action.
But some verbs do not give the idea of action; they give the idea of existence, of state, of "being". For example, verbs like be, exist, seem and belong all convey state. More on Verbs : More on Verbs Adverb : Adverb Modify a verb:- John speaks loudly. (How does John speak?)- Mary lives locally. (Where does Mary live?)- She never smokes. (When does she smoke?)
Modify an adjective:- He is really handsome.
Modify another adverb:- She drives incredibly slowly. Prepositions : Prepositions Conjunctions : Conjunctions F A N B O Y S
For And Nor But Or Yet So
The majority of conjunctions are "subordinating conjunctions". Common subordinating conjunctions are:
after, although, as, because, before, how, if, once, since, than, that, though, till, until, when, where, whether, while
Pairs of Conjunctions
Neither------nor, either --------or, not only but also, no sooner-----than
If you were a conjunction, you would join other words or groups of words together. You could be spicy AND tasty OR sweet AND sour. What else could you be if you were a conjunction? Interjections : Interjections An interjection is a word used to express some sudden emotion of the mind Examples: "Ah! there he comes" and "Alas! what shall I do?"The word 'ah' expresses surprise, and the word 'alas' expresses distress.
They have no real grammatical value but we use them quite often, usually more in speaking than in writing.
Nouns, adjectives, verbs and adverbs become interjections when they are uttered as exclamationsExamples OF interjections: nonsense! strange! hail! away! etc. Subject Verb Agreement : Subject Verb Agreement Usage - Subject-Verb Agreement
Subjects and verbs must AGREE with one another in number (singular or plural). Thus, if a subject is singular, its verb must also be singular; if a subject is plural, its verb must also be plural.
In present tenses, nouns and verbs form plurals in opposite ways:
nouns ADD an s to the singular form,
verbs REMOVE an s from the singular form. BEWARE : BEWARE The team leader and the project manager work long hours.
John and Julie have decided to go their separate ways.
The customer and the CSR were confused!
The subject consists of two people. Therefore, it is plural. Beware : Beware BE CAREFUL!
When subjects are joined by and and combine to form a single thing or person, they are treated like a singular subject.
Bread and butter is my favorite food.
Use a singular verb with such compound subjects. More on S-V Agreement : More on S-V Agreement Singular indefinite pronoun subjects take singular verbs.
Plural indefinite pronoun subjects take plural verbs.
Compound subjects joined by and are always plural.
With compound subjects joined by or/nor, the verb agrees with the subject nearer to it.
Inverted Subjects must agree with the verb. Compound Subjects Joined By Words Like Or : Compound Subjects Joined By Words Like Or Be careful when your subjects are joined by the following words:
either . . . or
neither . . . nor
not only . . . but (also) What if the Subject is an Indefinite Pronoun? : What if the Subject is an Indefinite Pronoun? The following common Indefinite Pronouns usually take singular verbs:
Another each everything nothing anybody either neither somebody anyone every nobody someone anything everyone no one something
Each of the boys was given a prize.
Neither of the CSRs was available.
Every one of us is interested. Making Verbs Agree With the Antecedents of Who, Which, and That : Making Verbs Agree With the Antecedents of Who, Which, and That The scientist will share information with the students who work with her.
George Jones is the student who works in the lab.
The town which was attacked by the enemies was ravaged. Tenses : Tenses The Present Simple is the most basic and common tense in the English language. It is also an interesting tense because the Present Simple can express both the present and the future.
Facts and generalization
Habits and routines
State verbs (e.g. be, have, think, know)
Fixed / official arrangement that we can't change Examples : Examples Ronaldinho, do you like playing football?
Ronaldinho: Yes, I do.
A:Does she like going to the mountains?B:Yes, she does
A:Does John have a dog?B:No, he doesn't.
Does Mike often play tennis?
Do you know who my friend is?
Is China in Europe? What do you do? Present Continuous Tense : Present Continuous Tense When talking about actions that are happening at the moment (present or temporary action).
For example, "Alex is writing a new book" can have one or two meanings, depending on the situation.
1. He is writing the book at this very moment. (present acitivity)
2. Alex is in the process of writing a new book. (Even though he is having a nap at this exact moment.)
We also use the Present Continuous for actions that will be done in the future. (future arrangement)
I'm flying to Rome next week.
Present or temporary actions
Future (personal) arrangements Examples : Examples He is getting married this month
They are swimming in the sea
I'm having my first driving lesson this week
I'm drinking hot coffee now
She is always asking me stupid questions. Present Perfect : Present Perfect To express actions that happened at an indefinite time or that began in the past and continue in the present. This tense is also used when an activity has an effect on the present moment.
Actions which happened at an indefinite (unknown) time before now
Actions in the past which have an effect on the present moment
Actions which began in the past and continue in the present Examples : Examples We have already had breakfast
I have bought new shades
I have already been to Paris
John has been a plumber for 2 years
Someone has taken my bag
He has been our most serious partner for so long that I can assure you he's a very decent man Present Perfect Continuous (Progressive) : Present Perfect Continuous (Progressive) We use the Present Perfect Continuous (Progressive) to express actions that started in the past and continue in the present. This tense is also used to talk about actions which began in the past and have recently stopped. Use
Actions that started in the past and continue in the present
Actions that have recently stopped
I have been living here for 20 years.
When talking about a starting point, we use since with a point in time.
I have been living here since 1960. Examples : Examples She's (=she HAS) been crying in her room for half an hour now
We've been waiting for a good offer to buy a car since March
I've been waiting for you to come (but now you're back!) Simple Past : Simple Past We use the Past Simple to talk about actions that happened at a specific time in the past. The actions can be short or long. There can also be a few actions happening one after another. Generally, there are two important facts to remember about this tense:
Events in the past that are now finished (e.g. I went to school) *
Situation in the past (they lived a normal life until they won a lottery) **
A series of actions in the past
* often referred to as short actions in the past ** often referred to as long action in the past Past Progressive : Past Progressive We use the Past Continuous to talk about past actions in progress. The actions can also be interrupted by something (for example: "I was eating my breakfast when the telephone rang"), but there are also several other uses.
Actions in progress
Interrupted actions in progress
Actions in progress at the same time in the past.
Timid / polite question Examples : Examples At 3 p.m., I was having lunch (the lunch started earlier than 3 p.m.)
They were talking about her when she walked into the room.
While Kenneth was cleaning the living room, Sam was washing the dishes.
We were all thinking about our holidays.
Shannon was filling in a questionnaire when the pen ran out of ink. Past Perfect : Past Perfect The Past Perfect expresses the idea that something occurred before another action in the past. It can also show that something happened before a specific time in the past.
Completed Action Before Something in the Past
Duration Before Something in the Past (Non-Continuous Verbs)
Specific Times with the Past Perfect Examples : Examples I had never seen such a beautiful beach before I went to Kauai.
I did not have any money because I had lost my wallet.
By the time Alex finished his studies, he had been in London for over eight years.
They felt bad about selling the house because they had owned it for more than forty years.
Had Susan ever studied Thai before she moved to Thailand?
She had visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.
George had repaired many cars before he received his mechanic's license. Past Perfect Continuous : Past Perfect Continuous We use the Past Perfect Continuous to show that something started in the past and continued up until another time in the past. "For five minutes" and "for two weeks" are both durations which can be used with the Past Perfect Continuous. Notice that this is related to the Present Perfect Continuous; however, the duration does not continue until now, it stops before something else in the past. Examples : Examples They had been talking for over an hour before Tony arrived.
She had been working at that company for three years when it went out of business.
How long had you been waiting to get on the bus?
Jason was tired because he had been jogging.
Sam gained weight because he had been overeating.
Betty failed the final test because she had not been attending class.
A: How long had you been studying Turkish before you moved to Ankara?B: I had not been studying Turkish very long.
The motorcycle had been belonging to George for years before Tina bought it. Not Correct
The motorcycle had belonged to George for years before Tina bought it. Correct Simple Future : Simple Future Simple Future has two different forms in English: "will" and "be going to." Although the two forms can sometimes be used interchangeably, they often express two very different meanings. These different meanings might seem too abstract at first, but with time and practice, the differences will become clear. Both "will" and "be going to" refer to a specific time in the future. Examples : Examples You will help him later.
Will you help him later?
You are going to meet Jane tonight.
Are you going to meet Jane tonight?
I will call you when I arrive.
He is going to spend his vacation in Hawaii.
She is not going to spend her vacation in Hawaii.
A: When are we going to meet each other tonight? Future Continuous : Future Continuous Future Continuous has two different forms: "will be doing " and "be going to be doing." Unlike Simple Future forms, Future Continuous forms are usually interchangeable.
Use the Future Continuous to indicate that a longer action in the future will be interrupted by a shorter action in the future. Remember this can be a real interruption or just an interruption in time. Examples : Examples You will be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight.
You are going to be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight
I will be watching TV when she arrives tonight.
I will be waiting for you when your bus arrives.
I am going to be staying at the Madison Hotel, if anything happens and you need to contact me.
At midnight tonight, we will still be driving through the desert. Future Perfect : Future Perfect You will have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.
By next November, I will have received my promotion.
I will have been in London for six months by the time I leave.
You will only have learned a few words. Idioms : Idioms a background check /a backgrounder We did a background check on him. He's clean. No prison record, outstanding warrants, that kind of stuff.a ballpark figure Just give me the ballpark figure for the project, I don't need it down to the exact cent.a big deal /a really big deal "So I blew my curfew, big deal," said the teenager.a bitter pill
After their winning streak, and intensive training schedule, the team's defeat was a bitter pill to swallow. Phrasal Verbs : Phrasal Verbs go out / stay out / stay in / drink up / get back
Look after, look for, look out, look at
Break down, break out, break in
Carry out, carry on, carry away
Take after, take out, take away