Poultry Farming

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Poultry Farming :

Poultry Farming Rearing and breeding of hens and some other birds is known as poultry farming. The eggs and meat produced by these birds are a rich source of proteins. India stands at 6th place in world in the field of poultry. Birds useful in Poultry 1. Galus domesticus 2. Duck 3. Turkey

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White leghorn Plymouth rock Rhode island red New Hampshire

Fowl:

Fowl Some breeds are more suitable for meat production. These are called Broilers, e.g. Plymouth rock Some breeds show a high egg production rate, and more suitable for laying good quality of eggs. The hens reared for the purpose of egg production are called Layers, e.g. White leghorn.

Management and Maintenance of Poultry-farm:

Management and Maintenance of Poultry-farm A poultry-farm or poultry house is constructed for rearing and keeping chicken. A layer of (10-15 cm thickness) straw, wood shavings or rice- hulls is placed on the floor of the shed. The house of chicken should be kept scared of dogs, cats and rats . An extra room is used to prepare and store the food for chicken.

Management and Maintenance of Poultry-farm:

Management and Maintenance of Poultry-farm Provide a good quality of balance diet to the chicken and adults. Poultry food should include cereals, barley, maize, protein concentrate, meat, fish silage, minerals, green vegetables, etc. Feed hoppers and water pots should also be kept inside the poultry shed Monsoon period is considered to be the most of suitable time for obtaining chicken from eggs.

Common Diseases of Poultry:

Common Diseases of Poultry

Pisciculture or Fishery:

Pisciculture or Fishery Pisciculture is the technique of culturing useful and highly productive fish species by man in controlled conditions of aquatic environment . The culture and rearing of fishes including some other aquatic animals like prawns, lobsters, molluscans etc. is known as aquaculture. Fish is an excellent source of animal proteins . Besides these also have a good amount of mineral salts, vitamins (especially A and D) and essential fatty acids.

Culturable Fishes:

Culturable Fishes

Culturable Fishes:

Culturable Fishes

Culturable Fishes:

Culturable Fishes

Culturable Fishes:

Culturable Fishes

Qualities of culturable fishes:

Qualities of culturable fishes Culturable fishes should have a high food value (both in quantity and quality ), high reproductive and growth rates, higher disease resistance capacity, tolerance against the environmental fluctuations , an easy acceptance towards natural and artificial food and should be well compatible to the other fishes present in the pond or the aquatic habitat.

Qualities of culturable fishes:

Qualities of culturable fishes The above criteria are fulfilled only by a few species of fishes, which are called as major carps At , present, three main species of the indigenous carps in India are included as the category of major carps. The three species are- Labio rohita , Catla catla and Cirrhinus mrigala .

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breeding pond hatching pits nursery ponds rearing ponds stocking ponds Various Fishery ponds in a Fish farm

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breeding pond Various Fishery ponds in a Fish farm Fish seed is procured from the natural breeding places of fishes giving in them the injections of pituitary extract (containing FSH and LH ) or of a synthetic hormone like human chorionic gonadotropins ( hCG ).

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Various Fishery ponds in a Fish farm hatching pits The fertilized eggs from the breeding pond are collected and transferred into hatcheries where they hatch to give rise to small hatchlings or sac fry.

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Various Fishery ponds in a Fish farm nursery ponds Juvenile sac fry are now transferred from the hatcheries into nursery ponds, where they develop into fry These fry by feeding on zooplanktons and phytoplanktons , grow in size and change into fingerlings.

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Various Fishery ponds in a Fish farm rearing ponds The fingerlings are transferred into rearing ponds , where they feed on both natural and artifical food. In rearing ponds, the fingerlings grow upto a size of 15-20 cm long. Now these are transferred into stocking ponds.

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Various Fishery ponds in a Fish farm stocking ponds In the stocking pond the fingerlings soon become adult and attain edible size in about 6-9 months. When the fish have attained a suitable table size, the fishes are captured by using fish gears like hooks and lines, drag net, gill net, cast nest. This is called harvesting.

fish institutes:

fish institutes Certain premier institutes in India viz., Central Inland Capture Fisheries Research Institute ( CICFRI ), Barrackpore ( W.B .); Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute ( CMFRI ), Kochi (Kerala); Central Institute of Fresh water Aquaculture ( CIFA ), Bhubaneshwar (Orissa)

Bee-keeping:

Bee-keeping Honey-bee is a member of class Insecta which belongs to phylum Arthropoda . It is a social insect which shows polymorphism and displays a well defined division of labour . Honey bee is an economically useful insect which is the source of very useful substances like honey and wax.

Important species of Honey-bees:

Important species of Honey-bees ( i) Apis dorsata (Rock bee)- It is also named as saarang bee. It is of largest size and produces highest yield of honey . However , It is of highly aggressive nature and migratory species, which is not suitable for rearing by man. (ii) Apis indica (Indian Mona-bee)- It lives across the whole country of India and is smaller in size than saarang -bee. It is mild in nature, so that it is easily manageable during rearing. Mona-bee yields about 3-4 kg. of honey per hive .

Important species of Honey-bees:

Important species of Honey-bees (iii) Apis florea ( Bhringa -bee)- This bee is smallest in size and of timid nature.It only yields about 250 gms of honey every hive. Hence is not suitable for commercial purpose, ( iv) Apis mellifera (European bee)- This bee is of mild nature. It yields 9-10 times more honey than mona -bee. It is the most useful bee for commercial purpose. The Italian variety of this species is by far the most important variety .

Social Organisation of Honey-bee:

Social Organisation of Honey-bee Honey-bee colony displays a high grade of social organisation with highly developed division of labour . Three important castes are found in the honey-bee society, ( i) Queen- Only a single queen is found in whole colony. Queen is of large size which is fed on royal jelly, a superior quality food given to queen only. The main function of the queen is to produce eggs for the development of whole colony.

Social Organisation of Honey-bee:

Social Organisation of Honey-bee (ii) Drones- These are fertile males which develop from unfertilized eggs, hence are haploid in nature. The only function of them is to copulate with queen and to fertilize the eggs . ( iii) Workers- These are thousands in number and are sterile females, produced by fertilized eggs. These discharge their duties by carrying over all the outdoor and indoor works of the colony. Their functions include collection of pollen grains and nectar, formulation of honey and wax, food storage, feeding and nursing and to defend the hive.

Modern Method of Apiculture:

Modern Method of Apiculture Modern method of apiculture makes use of artificial bee hive . There are more convenient as these may be reused and can be shifted easily to safer place in adverse of weather conditions. In addition to above, these are easy to handle and can be cared in a simple and easy manner. Apart from bee-hive, some other accessory equipements like comb foundation, honey extracting apparatus, uncapping knife, gloves, bee- veil, smoker , scraper etc. are also useful in bee-keeping.

Procurement and Rearing of Honey-bees- :

Procurement and Rearing of Honey-bees- Male honey-bees (drones ) are usually captured in the evening hours while they are swarming. After procurement, they are introduced in the brood chamber of the artificial hive . A queen and some workers obtained from a natural bee-hive are released into the artificial hive. Here they are fed with a artificial diet containing 2/3 parts of sugar and 1/3 part water, for some days. The queen of the hive needs to be replaced by a new one every year.

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The old queen is removed out of the hive. A small amount of the honey from this hive is applied on the fresh queen's body and the same is released into brood chamber. The artificial bee-hives prepared in such manner are placed in open fields or gardens or at some appropriate place. The site where the hives are placed should be moist and clean. A good flowering crop and other plants as a source of nectar and pollen grains to the honey-bees must be available within the circumference of 1 -2 kms from the hive.

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In the condition of overcrowding of males, some of them including a queen should be removed from that hive. A perennial source of clean water is also essential in the close vicinity of the hive. Honey bees produce honey and wax which are very useful commodities to man. They also play an important role in pollination of agricultural and horticultural fields.

Sericulture:

Rearing of silk worms, at commercial level to produce raw silk is known as sericulture . Species Bombyx mori is the most important one, which lives on mulberry leaves . Sericulture

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Life Cycle of Mulberry Silk moth- The adult silk worm is dirty white in colour , measuring about 4-5 cms . in length. The life cycle includes egg, larva, pupa and adult stages. Fertilization of eggs is internal, and the egg stage and larval period last for 10 days and 25-30 days respectively. The larval stage of silk worm is called as caterpillar which is the most active stage of its life history. This period is utilized by the larva for storage of the nutrients which are required in its future developmental stages .

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There arise five instar stages in all in the life cycle of of silk worm, during which it moults for four times. Caterpillars are smooth, cylindrical in shape and 4-5 cm long. A pair of silk glands develop in the larva by the modification of salivary glands . While in larval stage, the caterpillar feeds voraciously on mulberry leaves and stops feeding when become full grown larva. At this time the larva begins to secrete silk, which the larva wraps around itself as a continous thread. This envelope, laid down by silk thread, around the larva is called cocoon. The larva itself now changes into pupa , which is named as chrysalis . After 10-12 days of pupal life it comes out of the cocoon by disintegrating

Production of Silk by Silk-moth :

At the time, when a mature caterpillar stops feeding, the silk glands present in its anterior (cephalic ) region begin to secrete silk in fluid form. This fluid comes out through spinneret and soon dries into a fibre /thread on exposure to air with the continous rotation of its head, the thread is spun around caterpillar, forming a cocoon. Production of Silk by Silk-moth

Production of Silk by Silk-moth :

A caterpillar, in this way, produces about 1000-1200 metre thread in a period of three days. By the time the cocoon is fully formed, the caterpillar inside cocoon gets changed into pupa. Raw silk is obtained from such cocoons. Thread of silk is make up of two main proteins namely, fibroin and sericin . Production of Silk by Silk-moth

Sericulture Industry:

The following text incorporates the important aspects of sericulture industry- (i) The first and foremost important requirement of the sericulture is, growing the mulberry plant of high nutritive value and to select the best varieties of silk worms . (ii) The necessary requirements of the apparatuses and equipments should be managed well in time. These include rearing trays, cocoon trays, feeding tray, hygrometer, thermometer, oven etc. (iii) Seeds (eggs ) of the species of the superior quality must be made available to the persons engaged in silk worm rearing. This may be achieved through a good grainage management . Sericulture Industry

Production of Silk by Silk-moth :

(iv) Adequate conditions of temperature ( 23°C-27°C ) and humidity (60-70%) should be maintained during larval rearing. (v) Cocoons of 8-10 days age are killed by keeping them in boiled water, a process called as stifling , the silk thread is then unwound from dead cocoons, it is known as reeling. (vi) 4-5 thin threads ( fibres ) from the cocoons are spun into a thick thread, which forms raw silk or reeled silk . Production of Silk by Silk-moth

Production of Silk by Silk-moth :

(vii) The raw or reeled silk is processed further by a process called spinning . This is the process of obtaining finished ( pucca ) threads of silk by treating raw silk with boiled water and acid. (viii) It is essential to protect silk-worms from the various diseases. Pebrine , caused by a protozoa, Nosema bombycis and maggot disease caused by a fly, Tricholyga sorbillas are the most frequent diseases of silkworms. Production of Silk by Silk-moth