Conflict

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CONFLICT&NEGOTIATION : 

CONFLICT&NEGOTIATION Organizational Behaviour By- SHUBHAM SHARMA

Sub-Topics : 

Sub-Topics Define Conflict. Differentiate between traditional, human relations, & Interactionist views of conflict. Contrast task, relationship, and process conflict. Outline the conflict process. Describe the five conflict-handling intentions. Types Of Conflict. Negotiation Negotiation Process.

CONFLICT : 

CONFLICT “Working together isn’t always easy”

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“Our first & most pressing problem is how to do away with warfare as a method of solving conflicts between national groups within a society who have different views about how the society is to run.” ------by Margaret Mead.

Slide 5: 

Conflict is a process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected, or is about to negatively affect something that the first party cares about. Chung and Megginson define conflict as “the struggle between incompatible or opposing needs, wishes, ideas, interests or people. Conflict arises when individuals or groups encounter goals that both parties cannot obtain satisfactorily.”

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…………therefore conflict is a process is a perception issue that arises from disagreements or incompatibility of needs, interests or concerns between parties

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Conflict in an organization may arise from…… incompatibility of goals differences over interpretations of facts disagreements based on behavioral expectations and the like

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So, evidently, conflicts in workplace can be of the following nature……. Substantive Emotional Functional Dysfunctional

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Nature of Conflict Conflict may be Cognitive Conflict which refers to differences in perspectives or judgment about issues. It can air legitimate differences of opinion and develop better ideas and solutions to problems Affective Conflict refers to emotional issues and directed at other people .It can be destructive as it can lead to anger, bitterness, goal displacement and poor decisions.

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Transitions in Conflict Thought Traditional View of Conflict: The belief that all conflict is harmful and must be avoided. Human Relations View of Conflict: The belief that conflict is a natural and inevitable outcome in any group. The Interactionist View of Conflict: The belief that conflict is not only a positive force in a group but that it is also an absolute necessity for a group to perform effectively.

THE TRADITIONAL VIEW: : 

THE TRADITIONAL VIEW: Theory was dominant in 1930’s and 1940’s. Conflict was viewed negatively & it was used as synonymous terms with violence, destruction, and irrationality to reinforce its negative connotations. Harmful & was to be avoided. Conflict was seen as dysfunctional outcome resulting from poor communication, a lack of openness and trust between people, and the failure of managers to be responsive to the needs and aspirations of their employees. Steps: Single approach to looking at the behaviour of people who create CONFLICT. Merely direct attentions to the causes of Conflict and correct these malfunctioning to improve group and organizational performance.

THE HUMAN RELATION VIEWS: : 

THE HUMAN RELATION VIEWS: The human relation view argued that Conflict was a natural occurrence in all groups and organizations. Because Conflict was inevitable, the human relation schools advocated acceptance of Conflict. Proponents rationalized its existence- It cannot be eliminated and there are even times when Conflict may benefit a group’s performance. The Human relations view dominated Conflict theory from late 1940’s to mid 1970’s.

THE INTERACTIONIST VIEW: : 

THE INTERACTIONIST VIEW: The Interactionist view encourages conflict on the grounds, that a harmonious, peaceful, tranquil and co-operative group is prone to become static, apathetic and non-responsive to needs for change and innovation. The major contribution of the Interactionist view, is encouraging group leaders to maintain an on-going minimum level of conflict- enough to keep the group viable, self-critical and creative. It doesn’t propose all conflicts are good. Some conflicts support the goals of group, and improve its performance; these are functional, constructive forms of conflict. There are some conflicts that hinder group performances; these are dysfunctional or destructive forms of conflict. The only thing is you need to look at the type of conflict. Specifically there are three types: Task. Relationship. Process.

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Task Conflict: Relates to content and goals of work. Low-to-moderate levels of task conflict consistently demonstrate a positive effect on group performance because it stimulates discussion of ideas that helps group performance better. Relationship Conflict: Focus on Interpersonal relationships. They are almost dysfunctional because the friction and interpersonal hostilities inherent in relationship conflicts increases personality clashes and decreases manual understanding, which hinder the completion of organizational task. Process Conflict: Relates to how the work gets done. To be productive it must be kept low. Intense argument about who should do what become dysfunctional when they create uncertainty about task roles, increase the time to complete task and lead to members working at cross purposes.

THE CONFLICT PROCESS: : 

THE CONFLICT PROCESS: Comprise of Five stages: Potential opposition or Incompatibility. Cognition and personalization. Intentions. Behaviour. Outcomes. Stage-I Stage-II Stage-III Stage-IV Stage-V Antecedent conditions −Communication −Structure −Personal Variable Perceived conflict Felt conflict Conflict handling Intentions − Competing. − Collaborating − Comprising − Avoiding − Accommodation Overt conflict −Party’s behavior −Others reaction Increased group performance Perceived Group Performance

STAGE-I: Potential Opposition or Incompatibility. : 

STAGE-I: Potential Opposition or Incompatibility. The first step is the presence of conditions that create opportunities for conflict to arise. 1. Communication: A review of research suggests that differing word connotations, jargon, insufficient exchange of information, and noise in the communication channel are all barriers to communication and potential antecedent conditions to conflict. . 2. Structure: The term structure is used, in this context, to include variable such as size, degree of specialization in the task assigned to group members,, and the degree of dependence between groups. 3. Personal variables: Includes personality, emotions and values.

STAGE-II: Cognition and Personalization. : 

STAGE-II: Cognition and Personalization. This is the place in the process where the parties decide what the conflict is about, because the way a conflict is defined goes a long way toward establishing the sort of outcomes that might settle it. Awareness by one or more parties of the existence of conditions that create opportunities for conflict to arise- Perceived Conflict. Emotional involvement in a conflict creating anxiety, tenseness, frustration or hostility- Felt Conflict.

STAGE-III: Intentions. : 

STAGE-III: Intentions. It intervenes between people’s perceptions and emotions and their overt behaiour. five conflict-handling intentions- Competing (assertive and uncooperative) 2. Collaborating (assertive and cooperative) 3. Avoiding (unassertiveness and uncooperative) 4. Accommodating (unassertive and cooperative) 5. Compromising (mid range on both assertiveness and cooperativeness)

STAGE-IV: Behaviour. : 

STAGE-IV: Behaviour. -Conflict becomes visible. -includes the statements, actions, and reactions These conflicts behaviors are usually overt attempts to implement each party’s intentions. Overt efforts to destroy the other party. Aggressive physical attacks Threats and ultimatums. Assertive verbal attacks Overt questioning and challenging of others. Minor disagreements and misunderstandings. No Conflict

STAGE-V: Outcomes : 

STAGE-V: Outcomes Functional Dysfunctional

Types of Conflict : 

Types of Conflict INTRA PERSONAL Goal conflict Approach-approach Approach-avoidance Avoidance-avoidance

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INTER PERSONAL Personal differences Information deficiency Environmental stress

ORGNAISATIONAL CONFLICT : 

ORGNAISATIONAL CONFLICT Hierarchical conflict Functional conflict Line-staff conflict INTERGROUP CONFLICT Competition for resources Task interdependence Status struggle

CONFLICT MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES:If a Conflict is dysfunctional or the existing conflict is too low and needs to be increased- brings us to the Conflict Management Techniques. : 

CONFLICT MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES:If a Conflict is dysfunctional or the existing conflict is too low and needs to be increased- brings us to the Conflict Management Techniques.

Negotiation : 

Negotiation It is the continuous interaction and dialogue between groups in order to find a solution with maximum advantages to both

Approaches : 

Approaches There are two approaches to negotiation. Distributive Bargaining Integrative Bargaining

Negotiation process : 

Negotiation process