effect of climate change


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Effects of climate change on food products…

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Global Environmental Change Changes in :- Land cover & soils Atmospheric composition Climate variability & means Water availability & quality Nitrogen availability & cycling Biodiversity Sea currents & salinity Sea level

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WHAT IS CLIMATE CHANGE? Climate change is a significant and lasting change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns over periods ranging from decades to millions of years. It may be a change in average weather conditions or the distribution of events around that average (e.g., more or fewer extreme weather events). Climate change may be limited to a specific region or may occur across the whole Earth .

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There are so many consequences of climate change on various factors…..BUT more alarming and which is of our main concern is….Our food products….

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The hot weather condition has adversely affected the alphonso mangoes of Konkan region,with damages estimated to around 46 CRORES … Mango growers in Ratnagiri and Sindhudurg districts have been the worst hit. Since April 2,mercury has been rising above the normal by 6-7 o C .From 32.6 O C the maximum temperature went up to 37 0 C on the next two days. It dropped to 33.1 O C on April 5 and 6.

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Areas in Chennai like T nagar , Pondy bazaar,Mylapore market and Koyembedu,which used to be packed bursting with the mangoes from april itself earlier, now sell mangoes only in the month of May. “ Koyembedu market received atleast 20,000tonnes of the Banganapalli variety of mangoes last year,but this year the total number of Banganapalli mangoes brought into Chennai is not more than 1,000 tonnes .”

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Kesar mangoes Neelam mangoes

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Banganapalli mangoes Alphonso mangoes

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Tothapuri mangoes Langra mango

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Senthuram mangoes Chausa mango

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Dussheri mangoes Mallika mangoes

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Global warming in Gujarat’s Navsari district have damaged mango flowers Last year there was tremendous mango crops but this year there was 100% flowering but due to climate change and global warming ,at present the crop is going to be 15-20% only . So mango crop has totally failed this time. There is no possibility to export this year . As the production will be limited the price of the fruit would also rise.

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Coffee is a woody perennial shrub. In the early part of the century, the weather patterns inside coffee forest was predictable. Operations like fertilizing, composting,liming and sprinkler irrigation was carried out anticipating the rains. The stable weather patterns resulted in high yields. However for the past 10-15 years the unpredictable global weather patterns has had a direct bearing on Indian coffee forests.

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Feb 10 th ,2008 Red letter day in Karnataka Coffee blossoms….

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10 th months later….. Farmers got a rude shock

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Damaged coffee cherries due to Berry boarer infestation..

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How Does A Coffee Bush Behave Under Normal Circumstances? Under South-west monsoon conditions, the pattern of shoot growth is typically of sigmoidal nature . Shows a slow growth from march/ april to July and a period of rapid growth from august to october. Vegetative growth slows down with the onset of dry period from november and it will be minimum during december-february. Once again growth is resumed in march after the receipt of blossom showers.

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BEHAVIOUR DUE TO CLIMATE CHANGE Internal clock gets affected. Imbalance of biochemical constituents of the coffee bush. Diurnal temperature patterns disturbed. Production of growth regulators and promoters was off balance.

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FLOWERING IN COFFEE Short days (less hours of daylight). carbon/nitrogen ratio. Intermediate temperature Hormonal balance. After 8-10 days of showers,flower buds resume growth faster and change colour.

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Apple is a predominant crop of Himachal Pradesh. It alone accounts for 46% of total area under fruit crops and 76% of the total fruit productions. The crop alone contributes more than 987 crore towards the gross domestic product. Apple develop their vegetative and fruiting buds in the summer and as winter approaches;the already developed buds go dormant in response to both shorter day lengths and cooler temperatures.

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If the buds do not receive sufficient chilling temperatures during winter to completely release Dormancy ,trees will develop one or more of the following physiological symptoms: delayed foliation reduced fruit set and increased buttoning reduced fruit quality.

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The production of apple has gradually increased but the productivity has fallen from 10.8 to 5.8t/ha. Among all the productivity reducing factors,climate is difficult to manage. The changes in climate in the form of erratic precipitation increasing temperature Lesser days serving as the chilling period

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Kullu valley Rabi season Increase by 1.1 O C Kharif season Decrease by 0.9 O C Rainfall Decrease by 14.5mm

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Theog region Rabi season Increase by 2.4 O C Kharif season Increase by 1.2 O C Rainfall Decrease by 5.1mm

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Lahaul and spitti region Annual mean temperature below 14 O C

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A tea farm that has been founded maybe one hundred years ago is now facing deep trouble. Farms have been using lot of money into investments that boost the tea production and into land purchases. Now these traditional tea farms find that their location is not so ideal anymore. WHAT THE GLOBAL WARMING MEANS TO A TEA FARM?

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The quantitiy of the harvested tea has dropped slightly because the changed weather but this is not a catastrophical change because the drop in production is usually compensated by the increase in the prices. The world has learned to drink tea in huge mugs and that has meant increased consumption. This is the reason why the low production quantity is not so pressing issue for a tea grower. THE QUANTITY OF THE TEA CROP

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Here comes the trouble. Tea enthusiasts around the world have come to value specific tastes and tea blends and to get those special aroma one needs standard quality teas. Standard quality tea can only be grown in steady conditions which are now greatly affected by changing weather patterns stirred by the global warming phenomenon. THE QUALITY OF THE TEA CROP

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India produces nearly one third of the world's tea. The rolling Himalayan hills in India's northeastern state, Assam , are carpeted with lush tea bushes whose leaves produce some of the world's finest teas.

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Rising temperatures may be affecting the tea plantations, resulting in declining productivity of the brew to which millions of people across the world wake up. “It has been observed that minimum temperature has rise by two degrees centigrade and there is a reduction in the rainfall in the last 90 years by around 200 millimeters . And this is very important, very significant from the point of tea as a plantation crop“.

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Erratic rainfall patterns are of particular concern to planters because the tea plant is largely dependent on the weather. They point out that last year there were fewer days with sunshine, resulting in humid conditions which are unfavorable for the growth of the tea plant.

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The industry has been looking at irrigation as an option, but tea plantations are huge, irrigating 100 percent is a very expensive proposition..

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REFERENCES Abstracts of the 1st National Conference Session IV: Climate impact on plantation crops. Effects of climate change on global food production under SRES emissions and socio-economic scenarios IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON SHIFT OF APPLE BELT IN HIMACHAL PRADESH E-Book Climate Change and Coffee Production: Vulnerability and possible adaptation Eduardo Delgado Assad Embrapa - Brazil

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