The Basic Seven (B7) Tools of Quality: The Basic Seven (B7) Tools of Quality A PowerPoint Training Presentation Jitendra Kadam (AITM)MBA Department "As much as 95% of quality related problems in the factory can be solved with seven fundamental quantitative tools." - Kaoru Ishikawa By : vidya Arati Shridevi ,Radhika MBA Dept AITM Belgaum
What are the Basic Seven Tools of Quality?: What are the Basic Seven Tools of Quality? Fishbone Diagrams Histograms Pareto Analysis Flowcharts Scatter Plots Run Charts Control Charts
Where did the Basic Seven come from?: Where did the Basic Seven come from? Kaoru Ishikawa Known for “Democratizing Statistics” The Basic Seven Tools made statistical analysis less complicated for the average person Good Visual Aids make statistical and quality control more comprehendible.
The Basic Seven (B7) Tools of Quality: The Basic Seven (B7) Tools of Quality Fishbone Diagrams No statistics involved Maps out a process/problem Makes improvement easier Looks like a “Fish Skeleton”
Constructing a Fishbone Diagram: Constructing a Fishbone Diagram Step 1 - Identify the Problem Step 2 - Draw “spine” and “bones” Example: High Inventory Shrinkage at local Drug Store Shrinkage
Constructing a Fishbone Diagram: Constructing a Fishbone Diagram Step 3 - Identify different areas where problems may arise from Ex. : High Inventory Shrinkage at local Drug Store Shrinkage employees shoplifters
Constructing a Fishbone Diagram: Constructing a Fishbone Diagram Step 4 - Identify what these specific causes could be Ex. : High Inventory Shrinkage at local Drug Store Shrinkage shoplifters Anti-theft tags poorly designed Expensive merchandise out in the open No security/ surveillance
Constructing a Fishbone Diagram: Constructing a Fishbone Diagram Ex. : High Inventory Shrinkage at local Drug Store Shrinkage shoplifters Anti- theft tags poorly designed Expensive merchandise out in the open No security/ surveillance employees attitude new trainee training benefits practices
Constructing a Fishbone Diagram: Constructing a Fishbone Diagram Step 5 – Use the finished diagram to brainstorm solutions to the main problems.
The Basic Seven (B7) Tools of Quality: The Basic Seven (B7) Tools of Quality Histograms Bar chart Used to graphically represent groups of data
Constructing a Histogram: Constructing a Histogram From a set of data compute sum mean (x) Max Min Range (max-min)
Constructing a Histogram: Constructing a Histogram Use range to estimate beginning and end Calculate the width of each column by dividing the range by the number of columns Range # of Columns = Width
Acme Pizza Example: Acme Pizza Example Let’s say the owner wants a distribution of Acme’s Thursday Night Sales Data Set from last Thursday(slices) 0 2 1 2 2 4 1 3 1 2 1 2 2 4 3 4 1 4 3 2 2 3 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 4 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 3 1 4 2 2 3 2 2 2 1 2 3 2 2 4 2 2 4 4 1 2 2 2 3 2 2 1 2 2 4 2 1 2 4 2 1 7 2 1 2 2 3 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 4 2 4
Acme Pizza Example: Acme Pizza Example Mean = 2.032258 Max = 7 Min = 0 Range = 7 Question For 7 columns what would the width be? Range/Columns=7/7=1 slice
Acme Pizza Example: Acme Pizza Example Slices of Pizza # times ordered Histogram
Constructing a Histogram: Constructing a Histogram How is this helpful to Acme? 2 slices of pizza most common order placed Distribution of sales useful for forecasting next Thursday’s late night demand If you were an Acme manager how could you apply this information?
The Basic Seven (B7) Tools of Quality: The Basic Seven (B7) Tools of Quality Pareto Analysis Very similar to Histograms Use of the 80/20 rule Use of percentages to show importance
Acme Pizza (part 2): Acme Pizza (part 2) Slices Frequency % 0 1 .3 1 33 13.09 2 65 25.79 3 8 3.17 4 12 4.76 5 0 0 6 0 0 7 1 .3
Acme Pizza (part 2): Acme Pizza (part 2) The completed Pareto Analysis results in the following graph: Slices of Pizza # times ordered 2 1 4 3 7 5 6
Acme Pizza (part 2): Acme Pizza (part 2) Critical Thinking How does the Pareto Analysis differ from the Histogram? How can this be a useful tool to the Acme boss?
The Basic Seven (B7) Tools of Quality: The Basic Seven (B7) Tools of Quality Flowcharts A graphical picture of a PROCESS Process Decision The process flow
Flowcharts: Flowcharts Don’t Forget to: Define symbols before beginning Stay consistent Check that process is accurate
Acme Pizza Example (Flowchart): Acme Pizza Example (Flowchart) Window Take Customer Money? (start) Order Get Pizza Lockup Put More in Oven 2 Pies Available? Time to close? Take to Customer no yes no yes no yes
How can we use the flowchart to analyze improvement ideas from the Histogram?: How can we use the flowchart to analyze improvement ideas from the Histogram? Window Take Customer Money? (start) Order Get Pizza Lockup Put More in Oven 2 Pies Available? Time to close? Take to Customer no yes no yes no yes
Want some practice?: Want some practice? Make a flowchart for: Taking a shower Cooking dinner Driving a car Having a party Creating a Flowchart Any other processes you can think of?
The Basic Seven (B7) Tools of Quality: The Basic Seven (B7) Tools of Quality Scatter Plots 2 Dimensional X/Y plots Used to show relationship between independent(x) and dependent(y) variables
Acme Pizza (Scatter Diagram): Acme Pizza (Scatter Diagram) Minutes Cooking Defective Pies 10 1 45 8 30 5 75 20 60 14 20 4 25 6 In this simple example, you can find the existing relationship without much difficulty but…
Scatter Diagrams: Scatter Diagrams Easier to see direct relationship Time Cooking (minutes) Defective Pizzas
Scatter Diagrams: Scatter Diagrams As a quality tool What does this tell Acme management about their processes? Improvements? Time Cooking (minutes) Defective Pizzas
The Basic Seven (B7) Tools of Quality: The Basic Seven (B7) Tools of Quality Run charts Time-based (x-axis) Cyclical Look for patterns
Run Charts: Run Charts 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 PM- AM PM- AM PM- AM Thursday Week 1 Thursday Week 2 Thursday Week 3 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 Slices/hour Time
The Basic Seven (B7) Tools of Quality: The Basic Seven (B7) Tools of Quality Control Charts Deviation from Mean Upper and Lower Spec’s Range
Control Charts: Control Charts Upper Limit Lower Limit Unacceptable deviation X
Control Charts: Control Charts Acme Pizza Management wants to get in on the control chart action Average Diameter = 16 inches Upper Limit = 17 inches Lower Limit = 15 inches
Acme example Control Charts: Acme example Control Charts Upper Limit 17 inches Lower Limit 15 Inches Small Pie X 16 inches=
Acme example #50 Control Charts: Acme example #50 Control Charts Pies within specifications were acceptable One abnormally small pie is “uncommon” Should be examined for quality control
Summary: Summary Basic Seven Tools of Quality Measuring data Quality Analysis “Democratized statistics”