working of institutions ppt

Category: Education

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Introduction Democracy is not just about people electing their rulers have to follow some rules and procedures.They have to work with and within institutions. We try to understand this by looking at the manner in which major decisions-Legislature , Executive & Judiciary.

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The Decision Makers President is the head of the state and is the formal authority in the country. Prime Minister is the head of the GOVERNMENT and actually exercises all governmental powers.He takes most of the decisions in the Cabinet meetings


PARLIAMENT A parliament is a legislature whose power and function are similar to those dictated by the Westminster system of the United Kingdom. More generally, "parliament" may simply refer to a democratic government's legislature. The term is derived from the French  parlement , the action ofparler  (to speak): a  parlement  is a discussion. The term came to mean a meeting at which such a discussion took place. [when?]  It acquired its modern meaning as it came to be used for the body of people (in an institutional sense) who would meet to discuss matters of state. [1] Generally, a parliament has three functions: representation, legislation and parliamentary control (i.e., hearings, inquiries).



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The Lok Sabha (Hindi: लोक सभा) or House of the People is the lower house of the Parliament of India. Members of the Lok Sabha are elected by direct election under universal adult franchise. As of 2009, there have been fifteen Lok Sabhas elected by the people of India. The Constitution limits the Lok Sabha to a maximum of 552 members, including no more than 20 members representing people from the Union Territories, and two appointed non-partisan members to represent the Anglo-Indian community (if the President feels that the Community is not adequately represented). THE LOK SABHA

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Speaker Meira Kumar , ( INC ) since 3 June 2009 [1] Deputy Speaker Kariya Munda , ( BJP ) since 8 June 2009 [2] Leader of the House Sushilkumar Shinde , ( INC ) since 2 Aug 2012 [3] Leader of Opposition (Lok Sabha) Sushma Swaraj , ( BJP ) since 21 December 2009 [4] Structure Seats 552 (543 elected + 2 appointed) Political groups UPA ,  NDA ,  Third front , Others Elections Voting system First past the post Last election April–May, 2009 Motto धर्मचक्रपरिवर्तनाय॥ -  To transform the cycle of  dharma .


RAJYA SABHA The  Rajya Sabha  or  Council of States  is the upper house of the Parliament of India.  Rajya   means "state " [4]  and  Sabha  means "assembly" in Sanskrit . [5]  Membership is limited to 250 members, 12 of whom are nominated by the President of India for their contributions to art, literature, science, and social services. The remainder of the body is elected by the state and territorial legislatures it basically means the loksabha Terms of office are six years, with one third of the members retiring every two years.

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Type Upper House  of Parliament of India Leadership The Chairman Mohammad Hamid Ansari ,  I since 11 August 2007  [1] Deputy Chairman of the Rajya Sabha P. J. Kurien ,  INC since 21 August 2012 [2] Leader of the House Dr Manmohan Singh , INC since 22 May 2004  [3] Leader of Opposition Arun Kumar ,   BJP since 3 June 2009  [ Structure Seats 245  [3] Political groups UPA ,  NDA ,  Third front , Others Elections Voting system Single transferable vote Meeting place Chamber of Rajya Sabha,  Sansad Bhavan , Sansad Marg, New Delhi Website

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THE HIGH COURT The High Courts are the principal civil courts of  original jurisdiction  in the state along with District Courts which are subordinate to the High courts. However, High courts exercise their original civil and criminal jurisdiction only if the courts subordinate to the High court in the state are not competent (not authorized by law) to try such matters for lack of pecuniary, territorial jurisdiction. High courts may also enjoy original jurisdiction in certain matters if so designated specifically in a state or Federal law. e.g.: Company law cases are instituted only in a High court.

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Supreme Court of India भारत का उच्चतम न्यायालय Established 26 January 1950 Country India Location New Delhi Coordinates 28.622237°N 77.239584°E Coordinates :  28.622237°N 77.239584°E Composition method Executive selection (Qualifications imposed) Authorized by Constitution of India Decisions are appealed to President of India  for Clemency / Commutation of sentence Judge term length 65 years of  age Number of positions 31 (30+1) Website


THE SUPREME COURT The  Supreme Court of India  is the highest judicial forum and final court of appeal as established by Part V, Chapter IV of the Constitution of India. According to the Constitution of India, the role of the Supreme Court is that of a federal court and guardian of the Constitution. Articles 124 to 147 of the Constitution of India lay down the composition and jurisdiction of the Supreme Court of India. The Supreme Court is meant to be the last resort and highest appellate court which takes up appeals against judgments of the High Courts of the states and territories. Also, disputes between states or petitions involving a serious infringement of fundamental and human rights are usually brought directly to the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court of India held its inaugural sitting on 28 January 1950, and since then has delivered more than 24,000 reported judgments.

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