SEMINAR ON BRAIN GATE : SEMINAR ON BRAIN GATE By, Shreya Sachan EE 0804320048 Slide 2: What is Brain Gate/Brain Machine Interface/Brain Computer Interface??? Brain gate is an electrode chip which can be implemented in the brain. When it is implemented in brain, the electrical signal exchanged by neurons within the brain. Those signals are sent to the brain and it executes body movement. All the signaling process is handled by special software. The signal sends to the computer and then the computer is controlled by patient. Slide 3: Objective of Brain Gate !!!! The goal of the Brain Gate program is to develop a fast and reliable connection between the brain of a severely disabled person and a personal computer . The ‘Brain Gate’ device can provide paralysed or motor-impaired patients a mode of communication through the translation of thought into direct computer control. Types of Brain Computer Interface(BCI):: Types of Brain Computer Interface(BCI): One way BCI Computers either accept commands from the brain or send signals to it Two way BCI Allow brains and external devices to exchange information in both directions. History of Brain Gate…: History of Brain Gate… Research on BCIs has been going on for more than 30 years, but from the mid-1990s there has been a dramatic increase in working experimental implants. Brain gate was developed by the bio-tech company Cyberkinetics in 2003 in conjuction with the Department of Neuroscience at Brown University. Slide 6: Brain Gate Research in animals: At first, rats were implanted with BCI . Signals recorded from the cerebral cortex of rat to operate BCI to carry out the movement. FACT!!!!: FACT!!!! Researchers at the University of Pittsburgh had demonstrated on a monkey that can feed itself with a robotic arm simply by using signals from its brain. It Worked!: It Worked! Using only its mind the monkey was able to control a cursor on a computer monitor via Brain Gate. Since there were no complications in trials with monkeys: Since there were no complications in trials with monkeys Next Step: Humans! Slide 10: In December 7, 2004, brain-computer interface had been clinically tested on a human by an American company Cyberkinetics. Over a period of nine months, he took part in 57 sessions during which the implanted Brain Gate sensor recorded activity in his motor cortex. PRINCIPLE::
PRINCIPLE: The system consists of a sensor that is implanted on the motor cortex of the brain (Pedestal) and a Brain Gate
Interface Device that analyzes the brain signal. The principle is that the intact brain functions, brain signals are generated even though they are not sent to the arms , hands and legs . The signals are interpreted and translated into cursor movements , offering the user an alternate ”BRAIN GATE PATHWAY”.
Slide 12: The Brain Gate sensor (Red arrow), resting on a US penny,connected by a 13-cm ribbon cable to the Pedestal (Black arrow), which is secured to the skull. Neural signals are recorded while the pedestal is connected to the remainder of the Brain Gate system Slide 13: This is one of electrode implemented in brain. Individual electrodes are 1-mm long and spaced 4mm apart, in a 10x10 grid. The electrical signal exchanged by neurons within brain. Those signals are sent when the brain executes a body movement. Slide 14: Software behind Brain Gate… The computers translate brain activity and create the communication output using custom decoding software. System uses adaptive algorithms and pattern-matching techniques to facilitate communication. The algorithms are written in C, JAVA and MATLAB. ILLUSTRATION:: ILLUSTRATION: In Foxborough, a 25-year-old quadriplegic sits in a wheelchair with wires coming out of a bottle-cap-size connector stuck in his skull.Using just his thoughts, he was playing the computer game Pong. APPLICATIONS::
APPLICATIONS: In classification of EEG signal. In
communication. In evaluation of spike detection algorithms. Actuated control of mobile robot by human EEG. In evaluating the machine learning algorithms.
Slide 17: Challenges faced by Brain Gate… It is very expensive. Limitation in information transform rate. The latest technology is 20 bits/min. Difficulty in adaptation and learning. Slide 18: Emphasis should be on improving the information transform rate. Stronger algorithm should be implemented . Further concerns … CONCLUSION-: CONCLUSION- According to the Cyberkinetics' website, two patients have been implanted with the Brain Gate system. Using the system, called Brain Gate, the patient can read e-mail, play video games, turn lights on or off and change channels or adjust the volume of a television set. In early test sessions, the patient was able to control the TV and carry on a conversation and move his head at the same time. The results are spectacular and almost unbelievable. REFERENCES : REFERENCES Vidal, JJ (1973). "Toward direct brain-computer communication". Annual review of biophysics and bioengineering. J. Vidal (1977). "Real-Time Detection of Brain Events in EEG" . IEEE Proceedings. Levine, SP; Huggins, JE; Bement, SL; Kushwaha, RK; Schuh, LA; Rohde, MM; Passaro, EA; Ross, DA et al. (2000). "A direct brain interface based on event-related potentials". IEEE transactions on rehabilitation engineering : a publication of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Laura Bailey. "University of Michigan News Service" . Retrieved February 6, 2006. Slide 21: Thank You…