Watermelons[1]

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WELCOME

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Cultivation practices of Watermelon and Muskmelon PRESENTED BY: SHRAVANKUMAR RAJUR PG12AGR4024

Scientific classification :

Scientific classification Common name: watermelon. Latin name:  Citrullus lanatus   (also called  C. vulgaris ). Family name: Cucurbitaceae Genus : Cucumis Chromosome no : 2n=22

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The origin of watermelon is Southern Africa India is the secondary centre of origin In India widely cultivated throughout the Tropical and Subtropical It is found growing wild, because it reaches maximum genetic diversity resulting in sweet, bland and bitter forms there Alphense de candolle in 1882, already considered the evidence sufficient to prove that watermelon was indigenous to tropical Africa Origin and History

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Southern Africa The origin of watermelon is Southern Africa

Botany :

Botany Annual Dicotyledon. Trailing vine Diploid (2n = 22) [seedless watermelons are triploid]. Pollinated by bees. Number of fruits per vine varies from 2 to 15. Monoecious and andromonoecious types of flowering habits Compound leaf Watermelons produce separate male and female flowers. Male flowers are produced initially, followed by the production of both sexes usually at a ratio of 1 female to 7 males.

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Fat 0.15 g Calcium 7 mg (1%) Protein 0.61 g Iron 0.24 mg (2%) Water 91.45 g Magnesium 10 mg (3%) Vitamin A equiv. 28 μg (4%) Phosphorus 11 mg (2%) Thiamine (vit.B 1 ) 0.033 mg (3%) Potassium 112 mg (2%) Riboflavin ( vit . B 2 ) 0.021 mg (2%) Zinc 0.10 mg (1%) Niacin ( vit . B 3 ) 0.178 mg (1%) Carbohydrates 7.55 g Pantothenic acid (B 5 ) 0.221 mg (4%) Sugars 6.2 g Vitamin B 6 0.045 mg (3%) Dietary fiber 0.4 g Folate ( vit . B 9 ) 3 μg (1%) Energy 127 kJ (30 kcal) Vitamin C 8.1 mg (10%) Nutrition (per 100gm)

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Uses The fruit are sweet when ripe and juicy flesh is eaten raw The juice is boiled down to sweet syrup and fruit rind is pickled or turned into a sugar candy for consumption The seeds are also fried and eaten

Watermelon Varieties:

Watermelon Varieties About 200-300 varieties are grown in the U.S. and Mexico, although there are about 50 varieties that are very popular. The following are the four varieties you will most likely see at your local store. Picnic Crimson Sweet Jubilee Allsweet Seedless Triploid Hybrid Yellow Flesh Seeded Seedless Mini-Watermelon Yellow Flesh Red Flesh

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WATERMELON - Arka Muthu High yielding variety with unique character of dwarf vine of 1.2 mt, vine length, shorter internodal length and early maturing type (75-80 days). It has Round to oval fruits with dark green stripes and deep red flesh. Average fruit weight is 2.5-3 kg with T.S.S ranging from 12 to 14 %. Fruit yield 55 to 60 t/ha.

WATERMELON - Arka Muthu:

WATERMELON - Arka Muthu

WATERMELON - Arka Aiswarya:

WATERMELON - Arka Aiswarya High yielding F 1 hybrid. Green with Dark green deeply lobbed foliage round to oval fruit, Dark green with light green broken stripes, red flesh, with TSS of 13-14% ( brix ), average fruit weight 7.5kg with 1-2 fruit per vine. Duration 95-100 days. Fruit yield 75 to 80 t/ha, red flesh, crispy, delicious, juicy and very good taste. Good keeping and transport qualities.

WATERMELON - Arka Aiswarya:

WATERMELON - Arka Aiswarya

WATERMELON - Arka Akash:

WATERMELON - Arka Akash High yielding F 1 hybrid. Dark green with light green broken specks slightly deep foliage, oblong fruit red flesh, with TSS of 12-13% (brix) average fruit weight 6.5kg with 1 fruit per vine. Duration 90-95 days. Fruit yield 65 to 70 t/ha, red flesh, juicy and very good taste. Good keeping and transport qualities .

WATERMELON - Arka Akash:

WATERMELON - Arka Akash

WATERMELON - Arka Madhura:

WATERMELON - Arka Madhura Triploid seedless watermelon variety High yield 50-60 t/ha, T.S.S 13-14 %. Unique type , sweet , juicy and fully seedless Longer shelf life and transport quality Suitable for year round production under protected condition

WATERMELON - Arka Madhura:

WATERMELON - Arka Madhura

Water Melon - AHW-65:

Water Melon - AHW-65 Selection from local races Early to mid maturity CIAH, Bikaner Variety: Thar Manak Year of Release : 1993 Breeding Method: Selection Parentage : Selection from a cross between AHW 19 x Sugar Baby Important Traits : Superior fruit quality, High yielding than AHW- 19 Institute/University : CIAH, Bikaner

WATERMELON:

WATERMELON Variety : PKM 1 Breeding Method : Selection Pedigree/Parentage : It is a selection from a local type Important Traits : The skin is dark green with attractive pink flesh. Fruits are bigger in size with dark green skin and pinkish red flesh. Each fruit weighs 3-4 kg. The variety is suited to tropical plains of Tamil Nadu. Institute/University : HC&RI, TNAU, Periyakulam

WATERMELON:

WATERMELON Variety : New Hampshire Midget Year of Release : 1978 Breeding Method : Introduction Pedigree/Parentage : Introduction from USA Important Traits : Fruits small, about 1.5-2 kg, skin light green with black stripes, flesh red, sweet. Institute/University : IARI, New Delhi

WATERMELON:

WATERMELON Variety : Sugarbaby Year of Release : 1978 Breeding Method : Introduction Important Traits : Fruits are round with black rind, deep pink flesh with 11-13 % T.S.S., brown small seeds weight varies from 2-5 kg. Yield potential 150-170 q/ha in 85 days of crop duration. Institute/University : IARI, New Delhi

WATERMELON:

WATERMELON Variety : Arka Jyoti Breeding Method : Heterosis Pedigree/Parentage : IIHR-20 x Crimson Sweet Important Traits : Fruits are round to oval, dark green with blue angular stripes, average weight of 5 6 kg flesh is bright crimson, granular texture with 12-13% T.S.S. good keeping and transport quality; first picking starts after 90 days of sowing. Institute/University : IIHR, Bangalore

WATERMELON:

WATERMELON V ariety : Arka Manik Breeding Method : Pedigree Selection Pedigree/Parentage : IIHR-21 x Crimson Sweet Important Traits : Fruits are round-oval with light green rind and dark green stripes, average weight of 6 kg flesh is deep crimson, granular texture, pleasant aroma, high T.S.S (12-15%) with few small seeds arranged in row good storage and transport quality Institute/University : IIHR, Bangalore

Namdari variety:

Namdari variety Variety: Mayur Relatively matures at 90 days . Fruit weight varies from 9-12 kg Important Traits: fruit shape oblong ,flesh colour deep crimson, flesh texture is good vigorous vines, excellent fruit quality Recommended for: India Middle East

Namdari variety:

Namdari variety Variety: NS 295 Relatively matures at 90 days Fruit weight: 9-12 kg Important Traits: fruit shape oblong flesh colour deep crimson flesh texture is good very good shipper, wide adaptability Recommended for: India

Namdari variety:

Namdari variety Variety: NS 20 (H20) Relatively matures at 80-85 days Fruit weight: 8-9 kg Important Traits: fruit shape oblong blacky flesh colour deep red flesh texture is good excellent transportability Recommended for: India Middle East

Namdari variety:

Namdari variety Variety: NS 116 Relatively matures at 80-85 days Fruit weight: 10-12 kg Important Traits: fruit shape oval to oblong flesh colour crimson red flesh texture is very good medium early vigorous and high yielder, good transportability Recommended for: India Middle East

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Variety: NS 200 Relatively matures at 80 days Fruit weight: 8-10 kg Important Traits: fruit shape round to oval, flesh colour deep red , flesh texture is good vigorous, medium early hybrid, attractive rind, good yielder. Recommended for: India Middle East

Seedless Watermelons:

Seedless Watermelons Dr. Kihara , a Japanese scientist showed the that seedless watermelon Tetraploid watermelon plant’s chromosomes are doubled by the use of the chemical- colchicine . When the tetraploid plant is bred back, or pollinated, by a diploid or normal plant, the resulting seed produces a triploid plant. The seeds/plants have three chromosomes and can not reproduce. Watermelon can be produced in a certain varieties by triploids. Eg . pusa Badana

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In India, the best combination found at the IARI is tetra 2 crossed with Pusa Rassal . This hybrid has been named as Pusa Bedana . Tetra 2 is a very attractive and stable tetraploid variety.

WATERMELON:

WATERMELON Variety : Pusa Bedana Year of Release : 2002 Breeding Method : Heterosis Pedigree/Parentage : Tetra 2 x Pusa Rassal Important Traits : Vine growth vigorous. Fruits have dark green skin with faint stripes, somewhat triangular shape, tough rind, red flesh with white remnants of false seeds, T.S.S. 12-13%, 5-6 kg, produces 3-6 fruits per vine, very good keeping quality; maturity 115-12 Institute/University : IARI, New Delhi

WATERMELON:

WATERMELON Variety : Durgapura Lal (RW 177-3) Year of Release : 2007 Breeding Method : Heterosis Pedigree/Parentage : Sugar Baby x KS-3566 Important Traits : Fruits are dark green with dark thin lining, round and juicy having hard rind, dark red crisp flesh, TSS 10-11% and average weight 4-5 kg. Picking starts 105-110 days after sowing. Plants are moderately resistant to blight and bud necrosis Institute/University : RARS, Durgapura

WATERMELON:

WATERMELON Variety : Durgapura Lal Year of Release : 1998 Breeding Method : Pedgree Selection Pedigree/Parentage : Sugarbaby x K 3566 (Russiangermplasm) Important Traits : Leaves simple unlobed, fruits round, dark green, 4-5 kg, skin thin and hard, flesh dark red, TSS 10-11 % Institute/University : RARS, Durgapura

WATERMELON:

WATERMELON Variety : Durgapura Kesar Year of Release : 1986 Breeding Method Selection Important Traits Fruit weight is 45 kg, green skin with stripes . The flesh is yellow and moderately sweet. Seeds are large and yellow. This variety has yield potential of 400-450 q/ha. Institute/University : RARS, Durgapura

WATERMELON:

WATERMELON Variety : Durgapura Meetha Year of Release: 1990 Breeding Method : Selection Important Traits: fruits are round with light green and thick rind, good keeping quality, weight varies from 7 to 8 kg flesh is dark with 11 % T.S.S. seeds with black tip and margin, gives yield of 40-50 in 125 days of crop duration. This variety has yield potential Institute/University : RARS, Durgapura

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Watermelon is a warm-season crop. It is not chilling resistant and requires a long growing season. The optimum temperature for growth is between 22 to 25 o C. Dry weather during ripening with high temperature, enough sunshine and dry winds favour the development of fruit and high sugar content. It is a summer crop but in Rajasthan it is grown during rainy season which is as good as summer. Climate

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Watermelon vines mainly widen over the land, therefore it requires the drainage in the field. Watermelon can be grown on soils ranging from high sandy loams to clay loams. The sandy soil is most suited to the cultivation of watermelons. The soil is PH 5.0 Soil Requirements

Seeds and fertilizers:

Seeds and fertilizers Seed rate : 750 – 1125 gm/ha Compost/FYM : 25 t/ha Nitrogen : 100 kg/ha Phosphorus : 87.5 kg/ha Potash : 100 kg/ha

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Date of sowing : November- February Spacing : Row to row- 2.5 to 3.0 meter plant to plant- 1meter

Method of Sowing :

1. Shallow Pit Method: Size of pit 60 X 60 X 45 cm are dug at a distance of 1.5 to 2.5 m. Each pit is filled with a mixture of soil and 4 to 5 kg of FYM in compost. After filling the pit circular basin are made and five to six seeds are sown per basin at 2 to 3 cm. 2. Deep Pit Method:  This method is followed in case of river bed cultivation. Circular pits of 60 to 75 cm. diameter and 1.0 to 1.5 m. depth are dug at a distance of 1.5 to 2.5 m distance both ways. 3. Ridge Method: The seeds are sown on the side of raised beds. Method of Sowing

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4. Mound Method: The seeds are sown on the mounds. The seed rate is 1.6 kg per acre. The normal spacing is row to row 300 cm and plant to plant 90cm. The germination percent and the storages life of seed can be improved by treating freshly extracted seeds with 2 % HCL or NAOH 5. Trench method Watermelon is also sown in trenches of about 90-100 cms wide and of any convenient length. The trenches may be dug up at about three metres apart. Two or three seeds are sown at one spot each seed about 10 cm apart. The spots are maintained at a distance of 1-1.25 metre.

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KSHMA   MULCHING : Chamarajanagar District Puttaswamy S/o Madappa, Yadapura, Chamarajanagara Tq is a progressive vegetable grower. Last year he had grown about 4 acres of watermelon without mulching and got an average yield of 15 tons / acre. Later with the intervention of department of Horticulture, he started using Plastic Mulching for growing Watermelon. Now with Mulching he has taken an average yield of 30 ton / acre. With mulching sheet he has got an additional yield of 50 % which is really an outstanding result. This has made other farmers to adopt Mulching for Horticulture Crops especially in dry regions, by which they can expect additional yield and it may increase their economic level also.

Irrigation :

Irrigation Water can be applied to the crop through overhead, furrow, or drip irrigation. Drip irrigation enables the most efficient use of available water and is compatible with fertigation (application of soluble fertilizers in the irrigation water). The highest water requirements are during fruit set and fruit fill. Water requirement is based on soil moisture & environment This crop requirs irrigation at intervals of 4-6 days If irrigation is more then fruit cracking is occurs

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Pest and Diseases

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Melon aphids- Aphis gossyppi Symptoms Infested leaves curl downward and may turn brown and die. Suck the sap from the plants and cause a reduction in the quality and quantity of the fruit. The melon aphid also is one of the chief agents in transmitting Cucumber mosaic virus Control Dimethoate @ 2ml/ lt , acephate @ 1ml/ lt

Cucumber Beetles- Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi:

Cucumber Beetles- Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi Symptoms Cucumber beetles also transmit bacterial wilt of cucurbits. Feed on all parts of the plant including the flowers and fruit. Feeding on plants as soon as they emerge and either kill the plants or greatly slow growth. Control Chloropyrifos @ 2ml/lt

Anthracnose: Colletotrichum lagenarium :

Anthracnose: Colletotrichum lagenarium Symptoms: pathogen may occur on leaves, stems, and fruit. Lesions on leaves are irregular shaped, brown to black in color. Lesions on the stem are oval shaped and tan colored with a brown margin. Older fruit show small water-soaked lesions with greasy, Control: Metalaxyl MZ 2gm/1lt of water

Bacterial fruit blotch: Acidovorax avenae subsp.:

Bacterial fruit blotch : Acidovorax avenae subsp. Disease incidence increases under high humidity or where overhead irrigation is used. symptoms: Appearance of a dark olive green stain, or blotch, on the upper surface of infected fruit. The disease appear as water-soaked areas on the fruit surface Control: Fermentation

Powdery mildew: Podosphaera xanthii :

Powdery mildew: Podosphaera xanthii Symptoms: Small powdery whitish colored spots are appeared on leaves and also stem initially, later dry all leaves Control: In southern India, 'Arka Manik' is resistant to powdery mildew. Carbendazim 0.5gm/1lt or Dinacof 1.5gm/1lt of water spray at interval of 2 weeks in 3 times. These solutions spray 450lt per ha

Fusarium wilt: Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Niveum:

Fusarium wilt: Fusarium oxysporum f. sp . Niveum Symptoms: wilting occurs in more mature plants causing the plant to die. Flaccid, withered, and brown leaves, as well as vascular discoloration are common disease symptoms. Control: seed treatment with trichoderma sp, Resistant varieties: Afternoon Delight, Crimson Sweet, Indiana

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Fruit Disorders Blossom end rot Rind Necrosis Internal Cracking

Blossom end rot:

Blossom end rot cause: Poor calcium nutrition and moisture stress cause blossom-end rot It is worse in hot, dry, windy conditions where moisture stress is more likely to occur. Salinity of soil or irrigation water may also promote blossom end rot. Symptoms: young fruit dropping off and brown rotting lesions appearing at the blossom end of older fruit. Control: Good water management and sufficient soil calcium availability will usually address the problem.

Rind Necrosis:

Rind Necrosis It is an internal disorder of the watermelon rind. Drought stress is reported to predispose melons to rind necrosis Symptoms: Brown, corky, or mealy textured spots in the rind which may enlarge to form large bands of discoloration that rarely extend into the flesh.

Internal Cracking:

Internal Cracking Causes: By cool temperatures during early fruit-filling period. Other influences are stop-start growth, excess nitrogen, low boron levels and heavy, infrequent watering at fruit fill. Symptoms: Affected melons tend to be flattened in shape and feel lighter than usual

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It is the non-climetric fruit, therefore it must be harvested at full ripe stage Dull sound when the fruit is thumbed, in contrast to metallic sound Withering of tendril at the fruit axil Ground spot(where the fruit touches the ground) turning yellow The ride of the ripe melon emits a crisp, cracking noise Fruit weight is decreased with the advancement of ripening Average yield – local variety: 3.5 to 5.0 tonnes/ha, Hybrid:7.5 tonnes/ha HARVEST & YEILD

Musk Melon :

Musk Melon

Scientific classification:

Scientific classification Order: Cucurbitales Family: Cucurbitaceae. Genus : Cucumis Botanical Name : Cucumus Mela .L. Chromosome No: 2n= 24 Vernacular Names: Kharbooj- Hindi, Kharbuj-Marathi, chiral- Assamese, Velapandu- Telugu, calaloupi- French, Melonegurke-German.

Origin of muskmelon is tropical Africa in the sahara desert :

Origin of muskmelon is tropical Africa in the sahara desert Tropical Africa

Botany :

Botany It is an annual, trailing herb Large palmately-lobed leaves and bears tendrils, Both male and female are appeared in one plant The female flower is easily identified by the small fruit (ovary) below the petals. The male flower lacks the fruit structure and falls off the plant after the pollen is shed.

NUTRITION(per 100gm):

NUTRITION (per 100gm) Nutrients contents Nutrients contents Vitamin A 51.6 mg Sodium 14 mg Vitamin B 60.18 mg Magnesium 17 mg Vitamin C 68 mg Protein 1.4 gm Niacin 0.9 mg Carbohydrate 13.4 gm Fat 0.4 gm Dietary Fiber 1.3 gm Folic Acid 27 mg Potassium 49.4 mg Cholesterol l. 0 mg Calories 57

Varieties :

Varieties Pusa sharabati: Early maturing variety(85 days), having netted skin, salmon-orange flesh with small seed cavity Pusa madhuras: Mid-season variety, skin pale green, sparsely netted and salmon-orange flesh Hara madhu: Late cultivar, globose with dark green stripes, flesh light green, juicy, very sweet, keeping quality is poor Punjab smeheri: Early maturing cultivar skin pale green and thick flesh salman-orange with moderate sweetness  

Musk Melon - Arka Jeet:

Musk Melon - Arka Jeet An improvement over a local (IIHR 103) collection from Lucknow. Angular stem with dark green lobed leaves. Fruits small (350 g.), round but flat at both the ends. Skin colour dark green at early stage of fruit development which turns into golden orange at full stip stage. Flesh white medium texture, excellent flavour with high TSS(13-16%) and rich in vitamin C (41.6 mg/100 g) Duration 90 days. Yield 14-15 t/ha.

Muskmelon - Arka Rajahans:

Muskmelon - Arka Rajahans

Muskmelon - Arka Rajahans:

Muskmelon - Arka Rajahans Densely hirsute stem, light green foliage with shallow lobes. Fruits medium large, round to slightly oval, creamy white skin, netted with shallow vein tracks at full slip stage. Fruit skin white with green vein tracts when immature. Flesh white with pink seed cavity, crisp texture and mild flavour when ripe. Average fruit weight 1 kg. with 2-3 fruits per plant. Yield potential of 25 t/ha Duration of 85-90 days

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Climate Optimum temperature: 27- 30 ˚ c High temperature, low humidity and plenty of sunshine are essential for proper ripening and high sugar content. Plants are sensitive to low temperature and frost. Therefore it is grown as summer crop Soil Muskmelon is mainly grown on sand and sandy – loam soil. The optimum soil PH is 6.0 to 6.7.

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Time of Sowing in different regions In Karnataka January to February The seeds are sown in November to March in the plains. The seeds are sown in April- May in the hills. The seeds are sown in November- December in west Bengal,Bihar and south India. Seed Rate The seed rate is 1.25 kg/ha. In case of Transplanting Technique only 1 Kg/ha

Manuring and Fertilization :

Manuring and Fertilization Compost or FYM : 25 t/ha Nitrogen : 100 kg/ha Phosphorus : 75 kg/ha Potash : 50 kg/ha

Transplanting Technique:

Transplanting Technique Take polythene bags of 15 × 10cm size are filled with mixture of field soil, silt, and FYM in equal proportion. Two seeds are sown in each bag and watered daily with help of sprinkler cane. The transplants will be ready in about 25-30 days. At the time of transplanting remove the polythene bag.

Method of Sowing :

Method of Sowing 1.Shallow Pit Method: Size of pit 60 X 60 X 45 cm are dug at a distance of 1.5 to 2.5 m. Each pit is filled with a mixture of soil and 4 to 5 kg of FYM in compost. After filling the pit circular basin are made and five to six seeds are sown per basin at 2 to 3 cm. 2. Deep Pit Method:   This method is followed in case of river bed cultivation . Circular pits of 60 to 75 cm. diameter and 1.0 to 1.5 m. depth are dug at a distance of 1.5 to 2.5 m distance both ways.

Conti…:

Conti… 3. Ridge Method: The seeds are sown on the side of raised beds. 4. Mound Method: The seeds are sown on the mounds. The seed rate is 1.6 kg per acre. The normal spacing is row to row 300 cm and plant to plant 90cm. The germination percent and the storages life of seed can be improved by treating freshly extracted seeds with 2 % HCL or NAOH.

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Intercultivation and weed control Two or three hoeing may be done during the early stage of growth to keep down the weeds and to conserve soil moisture . Pre-emergent weedicide : Alachlor 1.5 lit/ha Irrigation pre-irrigation is done before sowing. Abundant moisture requires during the period of vines developing stage and upto the melon fruits are practically grown. This crop require 11 irrigation total 550mm is applied at intervals of 3 to 5 days.

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Pest and Diseases

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Cucumber Beetles- Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi Symptoms Cucumber beetles also transmit bacterial wilt of cucurbits. Feed on all parts of the plant including the flowers and fruit. Feeding on plants as soon as they emerge and either kill the plants or greatly slow growth. Control Chloropyrifos @ 2ml/lt

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Spider Mites- Tetranychus urticae Symptom These tiny mites feed on the contents of individual cells of the leaves. This damage appears as pale yellow and reddish-brown spots ranging in size from small specks to large areas on the upper sides of leaves. Stunted the growth of plants Control Dicofol @ 2ml/lt, Ethion @ 1ml/lt

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Melon aphids- Aphis gossyppi Symptoms Infested leaves curl downward and may turn brown and die. Suck the sap from the plants and cause a reduction in the quality and quantity of the fruit. The melon aphid also is one of the chief agents in transmitting Cucumber mosaic virus Control Dimethoate @ 2ml/ lt , acephate @ 1ml/ lt

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Powdery Mildew: Erysiphe cichoracearum Symptoms: It is evident as a superficial, powdery, greyish-white growth on upper leaf surfaces, petioles, and even main stems of infected plants. Affected areas turn yellow then brown and die. Warm, dry weather conditions favor the development of powdery mildew Management: Powdery mildew can be controlled by application of Wettable sulphur @ 0.2%.

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Gummy Stem Blight : Mycosphaerella melonis Symptoms Infected stems first appear water-soaked and then become dry, coarse and tan. Stem lesions on melons exude a gummy, red-brown substance which may be mistaken for a symptom of Fusarium wilt. Management Use of disease-free seed and transplants is essential to prevent serious crop losses. Applications of fungicide like mancozeb @ 0.2%

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Bacterial Wilt - Erwinia tracheiphila Symptoms On muskmelon, generally a distinct flagging of lateral and individual leaves occurs. Sometimes wilting occurs on leaves that have been injured by cucumber beetles' feeding Affected leaves turn a dull green and sometimes wilting occurs Eventually the entire plant wilts and dies Management mainly controls the beetles Carbaryl , Malathion , or rotenone insecticides or combination products are registered to treat cucumber beetles.

Harvest :

Harvest Muskmelon is climatric fruit, which ripe during transit and storage, it is harvested before fully ripe. The stage of maturity judge by the change of external colour and crack develops around the peduncle The fruit slips easily from the stem leaving a large scar, this is called as the full slip. In the half slip stage, only a portion of the disc is removed when the fruit is pulled out and the scar on the fruit is smaller than full slip stage In some variety like Hara madhu there is no development of slip only change of the outer colour.

Yield and Storage:

Yield and Storage The average yield is 2.0 to 2.5 tonnes /ha . Muskmelon can be stored for about 25 days at 0 to 1 0 c As in room temperature(32 0 c) it can be stored up to 8 days

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