genetic engineering in plants-seminar

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basics of genetic engineering in plants

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GENETIC ENGINEERING IN PLANT PRESENTED BY- ASHOK BHAGAT INTEG.UG/PG BIOTECHNOLOGY Vth SEM DEPARTMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

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INTRODUCTION “ GENETIC ENGINEERING” - THE DIRECT HUMAN MANIPULATION OF PLANTS GENOME TOWARD A DESIRED END AND PRE-DETERMINED WAY OF USING MODERN DNA TECHNOLOGY . Isolating gene of interest Modifying gene for better functioning Preparing gene to be inserted into a new species Developing transgene

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HISTORY- The expression of foreign gene introduced into plant was 1 st a chieved in early 1980 The 1 st transgenic plant was produced in 1983,when tobacco line expressing kanamycin resistant was produced. 1 st field trials of genetically engineered plants occurred in FRANCE and USA in 1986 tobacco plant were engineered to be resistant to herbicides. In 1994 calgene attained approval to commercially release the “ flavr savr tomato”. In 1995,Bt potato was approved safe by the environmental protection agency making it the 1 st pesticide producing crop to be approved in USA In 2009, 11 transgenic crops were grown commercially in 25 Countries (USA,BRAZIL,ARGENTINA,INDIA,CANADA & SOUTH AFRICA).

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Genetic engineering also called as “Genetic modification”it is a technology by which the genetic make up of the plants is done, thus the resultant organism is called genetically modified,genetic engineered or transgenic plant. PROCESS Dna isolation Gene cloning Gene construct Transformation & tissue culture BACKCROSS BREEDING AGROBACTERIUM MEDIATED GENE TRANSFER DIRECT GENE TRANSFER

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Agrobacterium mediated plant transformation process involves no. of steps: Isolation of gene of interest from the source of organism Development of functional transgenic construct Insertion of the transgene into ti -plasmid Introduction of the t-DNA containing plasmid into agrobacterium Mixture of the transformed agrobacterium with plant cells to allow transfer of t-DNA into plant Chromosome Regeneration of the transformed cells into genetically modified plants Testing for trait performance or transgene expression at lab,greenhouse & field level.

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AGROBACTERIUM MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION http://www.mun.ca/biology/scarr/MGA2-08-31,33_Ti Plasmid_transgenic_plants.jpg

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Developing transgenic plants that are Resistant to disease Resistant to virus Resistant to pests Resistant to insect Resistant to fungal & bacteria Resistant to herbicide Increasing the shelf life of fruits and vegetables Producing plants that possess healthy fats & oils and that have increased nutritive value thus improving the life style. Producing soyabean with high expression of the anticancer protein naturally found in soyabean . Increasing the yield per hectare and leading to increased productivity. Application of genetic engineering in plant has allowed the FOLLOWING BENEFITS TO HUMANKIND

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Gene addition project with plants Gene for Source Characteristic conferred on transformed plants Alpha- endotoxin Chitinase Ornithine carbamoyl transferase Virus coat protein Phosphinothricin acetyl Transferase EPSP synthase Bacillus thuringiensis Insect resistance Rice Fungal resistance Pseudomonas syringae Bacterial resistance Various virus Streptomyces hygroscopicus Virus resistance Herbicide resistance Cry gene Bacillus thuringiensis Insect resistance Weed control E.coli

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Insect resistant cotton – Bt toxin kills the cotton boll worm transgene = Bt protein Herbicide resistant crops Now: soybean, corn, canola Coming: sugarbeet , lettuce, strawberry alfalfa, potato, wheat transgene = modified EPSP synthase or phosphinothricin -N- acetyltransferase Virus resistance - papya resistant to papaya ringspot virus transgene = virus coat protein

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Major Indian development in transgenic research & application INSTITUTE PLANT INSERTED GENE AIM FOR THE PROJECT BOSE INSTITUTE , KOLKATA IARI DELHI UNIV. SOUTH CAMPUS INT. CENTRE FOR GE & BT,NEW DELHI RICE BANANA TOMATO TOBACCO S- adenosyl methionine decarboxylase Ctx -b ACC SYNTHASE BT CRYii A5 TO GENERATE PLANTS TOLERANCE TO STRESS TO CONTROL FRUIT RIPENING EDIBLE VACCINE DEVELOPMENT RESISTANT TO SPODOPTERA LITURA FUTURE ASPECT

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetic_engineering (20/09/11) www.ag.ndsu.nodak.edu/biotech/.../The-Science-of Transgenics.ppt,(23/09/11) James, Clive (1996). "Global Review of the Field Testing and Commercialization of Transgenic Plants: 1986 to 1995" . The International Service for the Acquisition of Agri -biotech Applications. Retrieved 17 July 2010. Sharma M,charak K S & T.V.(2003),AGRICULTURAL BIOTECH.RESEARCH IN INDIA:STATUS & POLICIES In:CURRENT SCIENCE VOL. 84, NO. 3 ARORA M P(2003),PLANT BIOTECH. In:”BIOTCHNOLOGY”VOL. 1, PP 375 REFERENCE

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT THANK YOU