ALZHIEMER DISEASE PPT

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ALZHIEMER’S DISEASE:SLOWING DOWN THE COURSE:

ALZHIEMER’S DISEASE:SLOWING DOWN THE COURSE

PROJECT WORK:

PROJECT WORK ON ALZHIEMER’S DISEASE: SLOWING DOWN THE PROGRESSION Submitted to PUNJAB TECHNICAL UNIVERSTY, JALANDHAR For the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Degree of BACHELOR OF PHARMACY (B.Pharmacy) (Session 2006-10)

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Submitted by: SHIWANI SHARMA Univ.Rno(6043250409 ) Miss DIVYA KIRAN Lecturer Supervised by : CT Institute of  Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shahpur Jalandhar

ALZHIEMER’S DISEASE: SLOWING DOWN THE COURSE :

ALZHIEMER’S DISEASE: SLOWING DOWN THE COURSE INTRODUCTION Definition Alzheimer’s diseases (AD) is an incurable, irreversible, and progressive neurological diseases and is the most common cause of dementia. In AD the destruction of neurons in the cortex and limbic structures of CNS occurs.

Characteristics of Alzheimer diseases Dementia:

Characteristics of Alzheimer diseases Dementia Dementia is a syndrome characterized by: impairment in memory, impairment in another area of thinking such as the ability to organize thoughts and reason, the ability to use language, or the ability to see accurately the visual world (not because of eye disease), and These impairments cause a decline in the patient's usual level of functioning.

Pathophysiology:

Pathophysiology Plaques build up between nerve cells containing deposits of a beta-amyloidal protein fragment . Tangles are formed inside dying nerve cells containing twisted fibers of protein called tau . The plaques and tangles tend to form in a predictable pattern, beginning in areas important in learning and memory and then spreading to other regions.

Signs of Alzheimer's:

Signs of Alzheimer's Memory loss Challenges in planning or solving problems Difficulty completing familiar tasks Confusion with time or place Trouble understanding visual images and spatial relationships New problems with words in speaking or writing

TREATMENT:

TREATMENT 1.ACETYLCHOLINESTRASE INHIBITORS TACRINE RIVASTIGMIN GALANTAMINE DONEPZIL 2. NMDA ANTAGONISTS MEMANTINE 3.PSYCHOTROPICS RISPERIDONE HALOPERIDOL NORTRIPTYLINE VENLAXINE

Alternative Treatments:

Alternative Treatments Coenzyme Q10 Coral calcium Ginkgo biloba Huperzine A Omega-3 fatty acids Phosphatidylserine

CASE STUDY (1):

CASE STUDY (1) NAME : Alice Christina AGE : 59 Symptoms forgetting professional terms she oftenly used to forget to switch off electronic devices and kitchen appliances,

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CT scan Atrophy of the cortex ,widening of subarachanoidal spaces and brain ventricles Roentgenoscopy Some reduction of blood flow in all areas Doppler ultrasonography Did not reveal reduction of blood flow in the vessels of the head or neck. EEG examination Slowing of the main cortex rhythm. Blood tests Slightly increased cholesterol levels. DIAGNOSIS

THEREPY:

THEREPY The patient was treated with Cerebrum compositum,1ampule injected 3 times a week, Cerebrum compositum is a complex homeopathic formula produced in ampules of 2.2 ml,each ampule contains in its ampule as active ingredients each ampule contains in its ampule as active ingredients- Aesculus hippocastanum Cinchona officinalis Cocculus indicus Conium maculatum Gelsemium sempervirens Ruta graveolens Aconitum napellus Anacardium orientale

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Hyoscyamus niger Kali phosphoricum Thuja occidentalis Cerebrum suis Ignatia amara Kali bichromicum Maganum phosphoricum Ambra grisea Bothrops lanceolatus Embryo totalis suis Hepar suis Magnesia phosphorica Phospharicum acidum Placenta suis Selenium metallicum Sulphur Medorrhinum Syphillinium Arnica Montana

RESULT:

RESULT 1ST Week No change 2nd week No change 3rd week The patient mentioned some improvement and she became more physically active, no changes in h state of memory. 4th week The patients ability to perform routine tasks improved, able to retell articles and ability to perform arithmetic tasks improved. 5th week improvement in ability and mood , including abstract logical thinking.

CASE STUDY(2) :

CASE STUDY(2) NAME : William jack Age : 85 years SYMPTOMS Difficulty to recall important information Current address, telephone number, the date, day of the week or season, Struggled to complete mental arithmetic problems and other abstract or concrete spatial tasks. Confusion with some mild combativeness and suffering some depression; did not want to get out of bed.

TREATMENT NEUROFEEDBACK TRAINING :

TREATMENT NEUROFEEDBACK TRAINING The man completed Neurofeedback training for the first time and reported no unpleasant after effects during his initial session The family reported mood improvements, noting the man's increased motivation and socialization,

FUNCTION OF NEUROFEEDBACK:

FUNCTION OF NEUROFEEDBACK Neurofeedback conditions and exercises the brain, much as one exercises muscles to feel better, or to reduce stress. The Neurofeedback trainer monitors a live recording of patient’s brain activity, observable to patient and the trainer via video and auditory representations. The trainer thus witnesses patient learning to relax, as he observe his own physiological responses to his physiology. Patient’s brain’s EEG is conducted through a few tiny sensors placed on the scalp that drive simple video imagery to engage and focus the brain. Because the brain is a self-regulating, “learning” organ, it continues to generate improved function, with the result of increased physiological relaxation. Typically, a minimum of 20 training sessions are necessary for clients to see more lasting functional improvement from reduced stress.

CASE STUDY (3):

CASE STUDY (3) NAME : MARIA KENNEDY AGE : 67 Years SYMTOMS Difficulty in remembering how to get to a previously known destination. More difficulty with word retrieval Unable to drive and had other complaints: growing anxiety about her dependency Occasional localized tingling and numbness in hands General forgetfulness, bouts of dizziness, and persistent depression.

CASE STUDY(4):

CASE STUDY(4) NAME : RICHARD BROWN AGE : 75 years SYMPTOMS forgetfullness Dr Davis administers a Mini-Cog, which consists of a 3-item recall DIAGNOSIS Clock Draw Test (CDT) Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Computed tomography (CT) scan The laboratory values and CT scan were within normal limits, but some but some atrophy was apparent on the CT scan.

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Mr Brown had a computed tomography (CT) scan The laboratory values and CT scan were within normal limits, but some but some atrophy was apparent on the CT scan. Dr. administers donepezil, a cholinesterase inhibitor, 5 mg every AM for 4 weeks, increasing the dose to 10 mg every AM at week 5. The donepezil was well tolerated by Mr Brown, and the mild nausea lasted only 3 or 4 days. He was instructed to continue taking the donepezil . RESULT Cholinestrase inhibitors improved his memory with in 2 years.

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She was taking a prescribed antidepressant but after a year was still not experiencing significant mood improvement. RESULT After several sessions of Neurofeedback training the woman reported that she could feel herself “relaxing better”. Later the woman noted she had succeeded in remembering and writing down a sequence of numbers after hearing them, and reported feeling more confident about taking directions. Midway through training the woman reported, to her great surprise, that her speech was becoming more fluent, with improved word retrieval. she had begun to drive short distances again.

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THANKS

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