water treatment

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Water treatment is the Process of removal of contaminants from untreated water to produce drinking water that is pure enough for the most critical of its intended uses, usually for human consumption. Substances that are removed during the process of drinking water treatment include suspended solids, bacteria, algae, viruses, fungi, minerals such as iron, manganese and sulfur, and other chemical pollutants such as fertilizers. Canadian Clear waters is the only company, which provides a complete solution for Water Treatment, Waste water Treatment, Desalination, Mineral Water, Bottled Water, PET Blowing, Filling Machine, Glass Bottling, Soft Drinks, Microbrewery and Packing on Turnkey Basis.

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  What Is In This Chapter? :

  What Is In This Chapter?   Water Treatment Overview Reasons for the treatment of drinking water. Overview of basic water treatment processes.

Water Treatment Overview:

Water Treatment Overview Treatment systems are installed for two reasons: to remove those things that can cause disease and those things that create nuisances . The basic goal is to protect pub- lic health. However, the broader goal is to provide potable water that is safe to drink, pleasant in appearance, pleasant in taste and odor, and cost-effective to produce.

Slide 4:

Water Treatment

Reasons for the treatment of drinking water:

Reasons for the treatment of drinking water The two main reasons for treating water are 1) To remove those contaminants that are harmful to health and 2) To remove con- taminants that make the water look, taste, or smell bad. Since many contaminants harmful to health cannot be seen, smelled, or tasted, early water treatment efforts focused on mak-ing the water more appealing to the consumer or improving the aesthetic 1 qualities of the water.

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Microorganisms Calcium Iron CONTAMINANTS THAT MUST BE REMOVED

Basic Water Treatment Unit Processes :

Basic Water Treatment Unit Processes Water treatment requires chemical, physical, and sometimes biological processes to remove contaminants. The more common processes used in potable water treatment are the chemical and physical processes. Biological processes are primarily used for treatment of wastewater. However, the slow sand filtration process is a biological process that has been historically used to remove pathogens from potable water. The biological activated carbon (BAC) process is also a biological process that is used to remove organic contaminants from potable water.

Cont..,:

Cont.., The chemical processes involved in potable water treatment include oxidation 15 , coagulation 16 and disinfection 17 . The physical processes include flocculation 18 , sedi-mentation 19 , filtration 20 , adsorption 21 , and disinfec The types of processes that are required and the order in which they are used depend on the types and concentrations of contaminants that must be removed. addition using ultraviolet light .

Basic water treat-ment processes steps.:

Basic water treat- ment processes steps. Oxidation Coagulation Flocculation Clarification and Sedimentation Granular Media Filtration Membrane Filtration Adsorption Disinfection

Oxidation :

Oxidation Chemical oxidation is used in water treatment to aid in the removal of inorganic con- taminants such as iron (Fe 2+ ), manganese (Mn 2+ ), and arsenic (As 3+ ) to improve re- movals of particles by coagulation or to destroy taste- and odor-causing compounds. Oxidation can also be used prior to coagulation, filtration, adsorption, or sedimentation to improve the removal of inorganic, particulates, taste, or odor.

Coagulation :

Coagulation There are two types of colloidal material Hydrophobic 25 Hydrophobic means water-fearing. Hydrophobic colloidal material is mostly inorganic material that contributes to turbid- ity and carries a negative electrical surface charge. Hydrophllic 26 Hydrophilic means water-loving. Hydrophilic colloidal material is mostly composed of organic material that is the common source of color in water. Hydrophilic compounds are surrounded by water molecules that tend to make these particles negatively  charged as well.

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Hydrophobic particles Hydrophobic particles after coagulation COAGULANT Coagulation

Flocculation :

Flocculation Flocculation is a physical process of slowly mixing the coagulated water to increase the probability of particle collision. This process forms the floc . Floc is a snowflake-looking material that is made up of the colloidal particles, microorganisms, and precipitate. Flocculation can occur with the addition of only the primary coagulant. However, ad- ditional chemicals can be added to improve the settling or filtering characteristics of the coagulated materials ( floc )

Clarification and Sedimentation :

Clarification and Sedimentation Clarification of water involves removing contaminants through simple gravity sedimentation or through solids contact processes that operate in either a down-flow or up-flow configuration. The three most common types of clarifiers used in small systems include gravity sedimentation, up-flow sludge blanket clarification, or down-flow contact clarification.

Granular Media Filtration :

Granular Media Filtration Filtration is a physical process of separating suspended and colloidal particles from water by passing the water through a filter media. Filtration involves a number of physical processes. Among these are straining, settling, and adsorption.

Granular Media Filtration :

Granular Media Filtration Types of Filters The two main types of filters used in small systems include gravity filters and pres-sure filters. Gravity filters rely on the depth of water above the filter media to provide the driving force to pass water through the media as it clogs. Pressure filters are enclosed in pressure vessels and can operate with much higher driving forces. In general, most gravity filters operate with 4 - 6 feet of available head, and pressure filters operate with 10 - 20 feet of head

Membrane Filtration :

Membrane Filtration The RO process provides the highest level of treatment of the membrane processes and is also effective in removing salts from brackish water or seawater. Membrane processes are classified based on effective size range. These filters are essentially a course membrane filter designed specifically to remove Giar-dia and Cryptosporidium.

FILTERATION EQUIPMENTS :

FILTERATION EQUIPMENTS Filtration equipments are used to remove contaminates or separate a mixture of different elements. Types of filtration : Sedimentation Equipment Gravity Filtration Equipment Vacuum Filtration

Adsorption :

Adsorption Organic and inorganic contaminants can be removed from water through the adsorp-tion process. Adsorption of a substance involves its accumulation onto the surface of a solid called the adsorbent. Organic adsorption Activated carbon can be used to remove hundreds of different types of organic con- taminants . Some inorganic contaminants can be removed through the adsorption process as well. Adsorption can be on to the surface of a filter media or on to the surface of floc .

Disinfection :

Disinfection Disinfection is defined as the process used to control waterborne pathogenic organ-isms and thus prevent waterborne disease. The effectiveness of disinfection in a drinking water system is measured by testing for the presence or absence of coli form bacteria 57 .

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