ip addressing version 4

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all about ip addressing version 4 in easiest way

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Created By :Shiv Raj Acharya IP ADDRESSING© A complete reference

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IP Addressing Introduction Topics covered will include: What is an IP Address? What are Classes? What is a Network Address? What are Subnet Masks and Subnet Addresses? How are Subnet Masks defined and used? How can all this be applied? What is VLSM? What is CIDR?

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32-bit Binary Number (Address) 11000000101010000111000100010011 Divided into 4, 8-bit Octets 11000000.10101000.01110001.00010011 Converted to Decimal Numbers 192.168.113.19 Decimal range of an Octet: 0-255 It contains the device’s: Network ID and Host ID An Internet Protocol (IP) address is a numerical identification (logical address) that is assigned to devices participating in a computer network utilizing the Internet Protocol for communication between its nodes.[ What is IP Address?

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Network ID Shared or common to All Computers on the physical segment. Unique on the Entire Network. “Area Code” Host ID Identifies a specific device (Host) within a physical segment. Unique on the Physical segment. “Phone Number” Network ID and Host ID

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Traditional Manner of Addressing Class A Class B Class C Address Classes Specify Which Octets of the IP Address are the Network-ID and Which are the Host-ID Address Classes Specify Network Sizes (Number of Hosts) Classfull IP Addressing

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Class A Network . Host . Host . Host Class B Network . Network . Host . Host Class C Network . Network . Network . Host Class D & E Address Classes

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Address Classes

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What is Loopback Address? A loopback address is an address that tells the computer not to test its connections to another computer, but to test its own basic network setup. Loopback address cannot be used by any computer in the world. Loopback Address :127.0.0.1

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Number of blocks and block size in classful IP addressing

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Addresses for private networks

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Class D Used by Multicast Applications Shared Addresses 224.0.0.0 – 239.255.255.255 Class E Experimental 240.0.0.0 + Class D & E

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An Address accompanies an IP address that indicates which portion of the IP address is the Network ID and which portion of the IP address is the Host ID. Network 152.107.102.7 (IP Address) 255.255.255.0 (Subnet Mask) Address and Subnet Mask (SNM) are interrelated and each only has meaning in The IP the context of the other IP Address and SNM are the minimum IP addressing requirements. What is a Subnet Mask?

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In Binary: 1’s represent what portion of the IP address is the Network ID 0’s represent what portion of the IP address is the Host ID For Example: 207.23.106.99 (Class C Address) Net . Net . Net.Host 11111111 . 11111111 . 11111111 . 00000000 (SNM in Binary) 255.255.255.0 (SNM in Decimal) What Makes up a Subnet Mask (SNM)?

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Class A 11111111.00000000.00000000.00000000 255.0.0.0 Class B 11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000 255.255.255.0 Class C 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000 255.255.0.0 Default Subnet Masks(SNM)

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Default Subnet Masks Class A (1 Network – 16.7M Hosts) Class B (1 Network – 65K Hosts) Class C (1 Network – 254 Hosts) Addressing an IP Network Assigned an IP Network Address 152.77.0.0 (IP Address) 255.255.0.0 (Subnet Mask) All Devices/Hosts on the Same Physl Segment Must have the Same Network ID One Network ID Supports Only One Physical Segment! The subnet mask that we use when creating a customized subnet is called a custom subnet mask. The custom subnet mask is used by network hardware Why Custom Subnet Masks?

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All Devices/Hosts on the Same Physical Segment Must have the Same Network ID. One Network ID Supports Only One Physical Segment. Why Custom Subnet Masks? 3

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Reserved IP Addresses Certain host addresses are reserved and cannot be assigned to devices on a network. An IP address that has binary 0s in all host bit positions is reserved for the network address. An IP address that has binary 1s in all host bit positions is reserved for the network address.

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A Subnet is a portion or subdivision of the IP Addresses that are associated with an assigned Network ID. The Range of IP Addresses included in a subnet is determined by the Subnet Mask. Subnets must be meticulously. numbered for network communication to be successful What are Subnets? To Correctly Address Multiple Physical Segments We Must Divide the Single Network ID into Sub-networks or “Subnets” .

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Analogy To Correctly Address Multiple Physical Segments We Must Divide the Single Network ID into Sub-networks or “Subnets” . Dividing the barrel of apples into small barrels or baskets does not give us any more apples…

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It is the same as taking a barrel of 100 apples and dividing it into 10 barrels of 10 apples each. 100 Apples (10 * 10) 10 barrels x 10 apples = 100 apples 10 10

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98 Apples (100 – 2) Before subnetting: In any network (or subnet) we can not use all the IP addresses for host addresses. We lose two addresses for every network or subnet. Network Address - One address is reserved to that of the network. Broadcast Address – One address is reserved to address all hosts in that network or subnet. 100 – 2 apples = 98 Usable Apples

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(less 2) (less 2) (less 2) (less 2) (less 2) (less 2) (less 2) (less 2) (less 2) 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 80 Apples 10 * (10 - 2) 10 barrels x 8 apples = 80 apples In subnetting we will see that we continue to lose two apples per subnet, one for the address and one for the broadcast.

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(less 2) (less 2) (less 2) (less 2) (less 2) (less 2) (less 2) (less 2) (less 2) 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 80 Apples 10 * (10 - 2) 10 barrels x 8 apples = 80 apples We “might” also lose the last basket of apples, subnet, as it contains the broadcast address for the entire network. In older networks, we “might” also lost the first basket, subnet, as it contained the address of the entire network, but this is usually no longer the case. X X

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Design Physical Network Determine the Number of Physical Segments Determine the Maximum Number of Hosts per Physical Segment Choose a Subnet Mask that creates the number of: Subnet (2x-2) >= Physical Segments x = no. of borrows bits from the host field and designates them as the subnet field. Calculate the value of x. Determine Subnet IDs (SN ID) Determine Host IDs Custom Subnetting:The Steps

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Problem: Create an IP Addressing Plan for a Company that: Has 5 Physical segments that each have a maximum of 5000 host on each segment And is assigned the Public Network Address 152.77.0.0 ISP Router 5 Physical Segments With 5000 Hosts Each An Example Problem in Subnetting

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#of Hosts Per SN-ID SN-IDs SNM SNM (Last 2 Octets) 128 192 224 240 248 252 254 255 1000 0000 . 0000 0000 1100 0000 . 0000 0000 1110 0000 . 0000 0000 1111 0000 . 0000 0000 1111 1000 . 0000 0000 1111 1100 . 0000 0000 1111 1110 . 0000 0000 2-2=0 4-2=2 8-2=6 16-2=14 32-2=30 64-2=62 128-2=126 256-2=254 32768-2=32766 16384-2=16382 8192-2=8190 4096-2=4094 2048-2=2046 1024-2=1022 512-2=510 256-2=254 152.77.0.0 255.255.0.0 11111111.11111111.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0000 0000 Network Address Default SNM SNM (Binary) Custom SNM 11111111.11111111.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0000 0000 1111 1111 . 0000 0000 Determining the Proper SNM 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

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Problem: Create an IP Addressing Plan for a Company that: Has 5 Physical segments that each have a maximum of 5000 hosts on each segment And is assigned the Public Network Address 152.77.0.0 with a default subnet mask of 255.255.0.0 Solution: Use a custom Subnet Mask of 255.255.224.0 (all devices) Provides 6 SN-IDs (5 physical segments specified) Provides 8190 Host IDs per Subnet (5000 Hosts per physical segments specified) ISP 5 Physical Segments With 5000 Hosts Each An Example Problem: The Correct Custom Subnet Mask

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Class C # bits Mask Subnets Hosts ------- --------------- --------- --------- 1 255.255.255.128 2 126 2 255.255.255.192 4 62 3 255.255.255.224 8 30 4 255.255.255.240 16 14 5 255.255.255.248 32 6 6 255.255.255.252 64 2 Subnet ID/Host Chart for Class C Networks

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Class B # bits Mask Subnets Hosts ------- --------------- --------- --------- 1 255.255.128.0 2 32766 2 255.255.192.0 4 16382 3 255.255.224.0 8 8190 4 255.255.240.0 16 4094 5 255.255.248.0 32 2046 6 255.255.252.0 64 1022 7 255.255.254.0 128 510 8 255.255.255.0 256 254 9 255.255.255.128 512 126 10 255.255.255.192 1024 62 11 255.255.255.224 2048 30 12 255.255.255.240 4096 14 13 255.255.255.248 8192 6 14 255.255.255.252 16384 2 Subnet ID/Host Chart for Class B Networks

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The Problem With Single-Level Subnetting Example: IP Variable Length Subnet Masking (VLSM)

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addresses! With traditional subnetting, all subnets must be the same size, which creates problems when there are some subnets that are much larger than others. Class C (/24) Network Split Into Eight Conventional Subnets

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The Solution: Variable Length Subnet Masking VLSM subnetting is done the same way as regular subnetting; it is just more complex because of the extra levels of subnetting hierarchy. Do an initial subnetting of the network into large subnets, and then further break down one or more of the subnets as required. Add bits to the subnet mask for each of the "sub- subnets" and "sub-sub-subnets" to reflect their smaller size. In VLSM, the slash notation of classless addressing commonly used instead of binary subnet masks.

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Variable Length Subnet Masking (VLSM) Example

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IP "Supernetting": Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) Hierarchical Addressing and Notation In a classless environment, we completely change how we look at IP addresses, by applying VLSM concepts not just to one network but to the entire Internet . In essence, the Internet becomes just one giant network that is “subnetted” into a number of large blocks. Some of these large blocks are then broken down into smaller blocks, which can in turn be broken down further. This breaking down can occur multiple times, allowing us to split the “pie” of Internet addresses into slices of many different sizes, to suit the needs of organizations.

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Diagram of distribution hierarchy Internet Assigned Numbers Authority

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Geographically: Diagram of distribution hierarchy

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IP CIDR Addressing Example Suppose we have an ISP that is just starting up. It's not a “major” ISP, but a moderate-sized one with only a few customers, so it needs only a relatively small allocation. It begins with the block 71.94.0.0/15. Of course, this block was obtained from a larger ISP, carved from a larger block of addresses by that ISP. For example, 71.94.0.0/15 would be equal to half of the address block 71.92.0.0/14, a quarter of the block 71.88.0.0/13, and so on.

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Hierarchical Division Of A /15 CIDR Address Block

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Client Computers IP = 192.168.1.3 IP = 192.168.1.4 IP = 192.168.1.5 Computer Running NATInternal IP = 192.168.1.1External IP = 131.107.2.1 The computer running NAT determines the destination, changes the packet header, and sends the packet to the client The computer running NAT changes the packet header and sends the packet over the Internet to the Web server The Web server sends a reply to the computer running NAT Internet Web ServerIP = 131.107.50.1 IP saving plan: Connecting to the Internet by Using NAT

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visit- www.tcpipguide.com http://www.intelinfo.com/Cisco Study\Free Cisco Documentation & Tutorials.htm www.geocities.com/shivrajacharya/ip_addressing.htm www.ning.acharya.com/subnetting For more Details

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Coming up next…..

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Welcome to IPv6

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Dear Listener How did you feel :- 1.Is it helpful for you? 2.Do you have any suggestion ? Please write me at shivrajacharya@gmail.com Feedback

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