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Slide 4: 32-bit Binary Number (Address) 11000000101010000111000100010011 Divided into 4, 8-bit Octets 11000000.10101000.01110001.00010011 Converted to Decimal Numbers 192.168.113.19 Decimal range of an Octet: 0-255 It contains the device’s: Network ID and Host ID An Internet Protocol (IP) address is a numerical identification (logical address) that is assigned to devices participating in a computer network utilizing the Internet Protocol for communication between its nodes.[ What is IP Address? Slide 5: Network ID Shared or common to All Computers on the physical segment. Unique on the Entire Network. “Area Code” Host ID Identifies a specific device (Host) within a physical segment. Unique on the Physical segment. “Phone Number” Network ID and Host ID Slide 6: Traditional Manner of Addressing Class A Class B Class C Address Classes Specify Which Octets of the IP Address are the Network-ID and Which are the Host-ID Address Classes Specify Network Sizes (Number of Hosts) Classfull IP Addressing Slide 7: Class A Network . Host . Host . Host Class B Network . Network . Host . Host Class C Network . Network . Network . Host Class D & E Address Classes Slide 8: Address Classes Slide 9: What is Loopback Address? A loopback address is an address that tells the computer not to test its connections to another computer, but to test its own basic network setup. Loopback address cannot be used by any computer in the world. Loopback Address :127.0.0.1 Slide 10: Number of blocks and block size in classful IP addressing Slide 11: Addresses for private networks Slide 12: Class D Used by Multicast Applications Shared Addresses 18.104.22.168 – 22.214.171.124 Class E Experimental 240.0.0.0 + Class D & E Slide 13: An Address accompanies an IP address that indicates which portion of the IP address is the Network ID and which portion of the IP address is the Host ID. Network 126.96.36.199 (IP Address) 255.255.255.0 (Subnet Mask) Address and Subnet Mask (SNM) are interrelated and each only has meaning in The IP the context of the other IP Address and SNM are the minimum IP addressing requirements. What is a Subnet Mask? Slide 14: In Binary: 1’s represent what portion of the IP address is the Network ID 0’s represent what portion of the IP address is the Host ID For Example: 188.8.131.52 (Class C Address) Net . Net . Net.Host 11111111 . 11111111 . 11111111 . 00000000 (SNM in Binary) 255.255.255.0 (SNM in Decimal) What Makes up a Subnet Mask (SNM)? Slide 15: Class A 11111111.00000000.00000000.00000000 255.0.0.0 Class B 11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000 255.255.255.0 Class C 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000 255.255.0.0 Default Subnet Masks(SNM) Slide 16: Default Subnet Masks Class A (1 Network – 16.7M Hosts) Class B (1 Network – 65K Hosts) Class C (1 Network – 254 Hosts) Addressing an IP Network Assigned an IP Network Address 184.108.40.206 (IP Address) 255.255.0.0 (Subnet Mask) All Devices/Hosts on the Same Physl Segment Must have the Same Network ID One Network ID Supports Only One Physical Segment! The subnet mask that we use when creating a customized subnet is called a custom subnet mask. The custom subnet mask is used by network hardware Why Custom Subnet Masks? Slide 17: All Devices/Hosts on the Same Physical Segment Must have the Same Network ID. One Network ID Supports Only One Physical Segment. Why Custom Subnet Masks? 3 Slide 18: Reserved IP Addresses Certain host addresses are reserved and cannot be assigned to devices on a network. An IP address that has binary 0s in all host bit positions is reserved for the network address. An IP address that has binary 1s in all host bit positions is reserved for the network address. Slide 19: A Subnet is a portion or subdivision of the IP Addresses that are associated with an assigned Network ID. The Range of IP Addresses included in a subnet is determined by the Subnet Mask. Subnets must be meticulously. numbered for network communication to be successful What are Subnets? To Correctly Address Multiple Physical Segments We Must Divide the Single Network ID into Sub-networks or “Subnets” . Slide 20: Analogy To Correctly Address Multiple Physical Segments We Must Divide the Single Network ID into Sub-networks or “Subnets” . Dividing the barrel of apples into small barrels or baskets does not give us any more apples… Slide 21: It is the same as taking a barrel of 100 apples and dividing it into 10 barrels of 10 apples each. 100 Apples (10 * 10) 10 barrels x 10 apples = 100 apples 10 10 Slide 22: 98 Apples (100 – 2) Before subnetting: In any network (or subnet) we can not use all the IP addresses for host addresses. We lose two addresses for every network or subnet. Network Address - One address is reserved to that of the network. Broadcast Address – One address is reserved to address all hosts in that network or subnet. 100 – 2 apples = 98 Usable Apples Slide 23: (less 2) (less 2) (less 2) (less 2) (less 2) (less 2) (less 2) (less 2) (less 2) 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 80 Apples 10 * (10 - 2) 10 barrels x 8 apples = 80 apples In subnetting we will see that we continue to lose two apples per subnet, one for the address and one for the broadcast. Slide 24: (less 2) (less 2) (less 2) (less 2) (less 2) (less 2) (less 2) (less 2) (less 2) 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 80 Apples 10 * (10 - 2) 10 barrels x 8 apples = 80 apples We “might” also lose the last basket of apples, subnet, as it contains the broadcast address for the entire network. In older networks, we “might” also lost the first basket, subnet, as it contained the address of the entire network, but this is usually no longer the case. X X Slide 25: Design Physical Network Determine the Number of Physical Segments Determine the Maximum Number of Hosts per Physical Segment Choose a Subnet Mask that creates the number of: Subnet (2x-2) >= Physical Segments x = no. of borrows bits from the host field and designates them as the subnet field. Calculate the value of x. Determine Subnet IDs (SN ID) Determine Host IDs Custom Subnetting:The Steps Slide 26: Problem: Create an IP Addressing Plan for a Company that: Has 5 Physical segments that each have a maximum of 5000 host on each segment And is assigned the Public Network Address 220.127.116.11 ISP Router 5 Physical Segments With 5000 Hosts Each An Example Problem in Subnetting Slide 27: #of Hosts Per SN-ID SN-IDs SNM SNM (Last 2 Octets) 128 192 224 240 248 252 254 255 1000 0000 . 0000 0000 1100 0000 . 0000 0000 1110 0000 . 0000 0000 1111 0000 . 0000 0000 1111 1000 . 0000 0000 1111 1100 . 0000 0000 1111 1110 . 0000 0000 2-2=0 4-2=2 8-2=6 16-2=14 32-2=30 64-2=62 128-2=126 256-2=254 32768-2=32766 16384-2=16382 8192-2=8190 4096-2=4094 2048-2=2046 1024-2=1022 512-2=510 256-2=254 18.104.22.168 255.255.0.0 11111111.11111111.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0000 0000 Network Address Default SNM SNM (Binary) Custom SNM 11111111.11111111.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0000 0000 1111 1111 . 0000 0000 Determining the Proper SNM 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Slide 28: Problem: Create an IP Addressing Plan for a Company that: Has 5 Physical segments that each have a maximum of 5000 hosts on each segment And is assigned the Public Network Address 22.214.171.124 with a default subnet mask of 255.255.0.0 Solution: Use a custom Subnet Mask of 255.255.224.0 (all devices) Provides 6 SN-IDs (5 physical segments specified) Provides 8190 Host IDs per Subnet (5000 Hosts per physical segments specified) ISP 5 Physical Segments With 5000 Hosts Each An Example Problem: The Correct Custom Subnet Mask Slide 29: Class C # bits Mask Subnets Hosts ------- --------------- --------- --------- 1 255.255.255.128 2 126 2 255.255.255.192 4 62 3 255.255.255.224 8 30 4 255.255.255.240 16 14 5 255.255.255.248 32 6 6 255.255.255.252 64 2 Subnet ID/Host Chart for Class C Networks Slide 30: Class B # bits Mask Subnets Hosts ------- --------------- --------- --------- 1 255.255.128.0 2 32766 2 255.255.192.0 4 16382 3 255.255.224.0 8 8190 4 255.255.240.0 16 4094 5 255.255.248.0 32 2046 6 255.255.252.0 64 1022 7 255.255.254.0 128 510 8 255.255.255.0 256 254 9 255.255.255.128 512 126 10 255.255.255.192 1024 62 11 255.255.255.224 2048 30 12 255.255.255.240 4096 14 13 255.255.255.248 8192 6 14 255.255.255.252 16384 2 Subnet ID/Host Chart for Class B Networks Slide 31: The Problem With Single-Level Subnetting Example: IP Variable Length Subnet Masking (VLSM) Slide 32: addresses! With traditional subnetting, all subnets must be the same size, which creates problems when there are some subnets that are much larger than others. Class C (/24) Network Split Into Eight Conventional Subnets Slide 33: The Solution: Variable Length Subnet Masking VLSM subnetting is done the same way as regular subnetting; it is just more complex because of the extra levels of subnetting hierarchy. Do an initial subnetting of the network into large subnets, and then further break down one or more of the subnets as required. Add bits to the subnet mask for each of the "sub- subnets" and "sub-sub-subnets" to reflect their smaller size. In VLSM, the slash notation of classless addressing commonly used instead of binary subnet masks. Slide 34: Variable Length Subnet Masking (VLSM) Example Slide 35: IP "Supernetting": Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) Hierarchical Addressing and Notation In a classless environment, we completely change how we look at IP addresses, by applying VLSM concepts not just to one network but to the entire Internet . In essence, the Internet becomes just one giant network that is “subnetted” into a number of large blocks. Some of these large blocks are then broken down into smaller blocks, which can in turn be broken down further. This breaking down can occur multiple times, allowing us to split the “pie” of Internet addresses into slices of many different sizes, to suit the needs of organizations. Slide 36: Diagram of distribution hierarchy Internet Assigned Numbers Authority Slide 37: Geographically: Diagram of distribution hierarchy Slide 38: IP CIDR Addressing Example Suppose we have an ISP that is just starting up. It's not a “major” ISP, but a moderate-sized one with only a few customers, so it needs only a relatively small allocation. It begins with the block 126.96.36.199/15. Of course, this block was obtained from a larger ISP, carved from a larger block of addresses by that ISP. For example, 188.8.131.52/15 would be equal to half of the address block 184.108.40.206/14, a quarter of the block 220.127.116.11/13, and so on. Slide 39: Hierarchical Division Of A /15 CIDR Address Block Slide 41: Client Computers IP = 192.168.1.3 IP = 192.168.1.4 IP = 192.168.1.5 Computer Running NATInternal IP = 192.168.1.1External IP = 18.104.22.168 The computer running NAT determines the destination, changes the packet header, and sends the packet to the client The computer running NAT changes the packet header and sends the packet over the Internet to the Web server The Web server sends a reply to the computer running NAT Internet Web ServerIP = 22.214.171.124 IP saving plan: Connecting to the Internet by Using NAT Slide 42: visit- www.tcpipguide.com http://www.intelinfo.com/Cisco Study\Free Cisco Documentation & Tutorials.htm www.geocities.com/shivrajacharya/ip_addressing.htm www.ning.acharya.com/subnetting For more Details Slide 43: Coming up next….. Slide 44: Welcome to IPv6 Slide 45: Dear Listener How did you feel :- 1.Is it helpful for you? 2.Do you have any suggestion ? 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