Gene Interaction

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Gene Interaction When individual forms gamete- the two members of each pair of allele always separate from each other. Separation of pair of allele is independent of the separation in any other pair of allele. Gametes therefore contain any one allele of each of the several pairs of allele found in an individual. Fertilization the gametes recombine at random to give rise to new individual.

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Gene Interaction Different pairs of alleles influence the same character of an individual; it is likely that the expression of theses gene interacts. Two different genes interact and affect the same character, such a genetic interaction is said to be intergenic or non-allelic gene interaction. In non-allelic interactions different genes located on the same or different chromosome interact with one another for the expression of single phenotypic trait of an organism.

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Gene Interaction Non-allelic interaction- Epistasis. The phenomenon of two or more gene affecting the expression of each other in various ways in the development of single character of an organism is termed as gene interaction. A kind of interaction between genes belonging to different pair of allele, the dominant allele in one of the pair preventing the dominant allele of other pair from expressing itself. Gene ‘A’ – epistatic over ‘B’ ‘B’ – hypostatic to “A”

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Gene Interaction Two different types Interaction without the modification of normal F 2 phenotypic ratio Interaction with the modification of normal F 2 phenotypic ratio

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Gene Interaction without the modification of normal F 2 phenotypic ratio (9:3:3:1)

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Bateson & Punnet in Comb Type in Poultry WALNUT ROSE PEA SINGLE

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WALNUT ROSE PEA X

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WALNUT ROSE PEA SINGLE Comb type governed by pair of genes RRpp RrPp rrPP rrpp

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WALNUT ROSE PEA X rrPP RRpp RrPp RP Rp rP F 1 rp

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RP Rp rP rp RP RRPP RRPp RrPP RrPp Rp RRPp RRpp RrPp Rrpp rP RrPP RrPp rrPP rrPp rp RrPp Rrpp rrPp rrpp 9 Walnut : 3 Rose : 3 Pea : 1 Single F 2

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Gene Interaction with the modification of normal F 2 phenotypic ratio

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Complementary 9:7 Supplementary 9:3:4 Epistasis 12:3:1 Inhibitory 13:3 Duplicate 15:1 Polymorphism 9:6:1

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COMPLEMENTARY (9:7)

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Complementary Gene Interaction (9:7) Type of interaction in which both dominant pair of genes have same phenotypic effect when present alone. But when present together produces different effect. Observed in flower colour of garden pea. Two varieties having white flower when crossed; F1 – Purple colour . Flower colour in pea is governed by two different pair of genes. ‘C’ produce white flower in one variety ‘W’ produce white flower in other variety C & W present together produces Purple

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X CCww ccWW CcWw CW Cw cW F 1 cw White Flower White Flower Purple Flower Gametes

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CW Cw cW cw CW CCWW CCWw CcWW CcWw Cw CCWw CCww CcWw Ccww cW CcWW CcWw ccWW ccWw cw CcWw Ccww ccWw ccww 9 Purple : 7 White F 2 Recessive gene factor act as complementary to each other, the interaction is known as complementary

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SUPLEMENTARY (9:3:4)

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Supplementary Gene Interaction (9:3:4) Type of interaction in which two pair of allele affect the same character. Out of two pair of genes; one of the dominant has visible effect itself; while other dominant gene express its effect when it is supplemented with other dominant gene. Noticed in coat colour in mice. 3 coat colour – Black, Albino, Agouti Black dominant to Albino & Agouti

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X CCaa ccAA CcAa CA Ca cA F 1 ca Black Albino Agouti Gametes

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CA Ca cA ca CA CCAA CCAa CcAA CcAa Ca CCAa CCaa CcAa Ccaa cA CcAA CcAa ccAa ccAa ca CcAa Ccaa ccAa ccaa 9 Agouti : 3 Black : 4 White F 2 Gene ‘C’ necessary for development of Black Colour ‘A’ present in Albino mice ‘A’ is responsible for production of ‘Agouti’ in presence of ‘C’ ‘A’ alone has no effect- albino

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EPISTASIS (12:3:1)

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Epistasis (12:3:1) Type of interaction in which two dominant factor affect the same character in such a way that when present alone or with other produces its own effect. Second dominant gene will have its own effect when present alone; its effect is suppressed when present with first dominant gene. Recessive alleles of both the genes produces different effect. Fruit colour of squash- White , Yellow and Green.

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X WWYY wwyy WwYy WY Wy wY F 1 wy White Green White Gametes

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WY Wy wY wy WY WWYY WWYy WwYY WwYy Wy WWYy WWyy WwYy Wwyy wY WwYY WwYy wwYY wwYy wy WwYy Wwyy wwYy wwyy 12 White : 3 Yellow : 1 Green F 2 ‘W’ alone White ‘ Y ’ alone Yellow ‘W’ and ‘Y’ or ‘W’ and ‘y’ - White ‘wy’ - Green Effect of ‘Y’ is suppressed by ‘W’

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INHIBITORY (13:3)

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Inhibitory (13:3) Type of interaction in which two pair of factor affect the same character in such a way that when one dominant factor suppress or inhibits the expression of other dominant factor, but inhibitory factor has no visible effect. Plumage colour of Poultry. White leghorns crossed with white wayandotte, F1 - white. Expt. Have proved that white leghorn contain ‘C’ gene for colured plumage. In addition to this another gene ‘I’ is present.

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X IICC iicc IiCc IC Ic iC F 1 ic White Leghorns White Wyandotte White Gametes

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IC Ic iC ic IC IICC IICc IiCC IiCc Ic IICc Iicc IiCc Iicc iC IiCC IiCc iiCC iiCc ic IiCc Iicc iiCc iicc 13 White : 3 Coloured F 2 ‘I’ present with ‘ C ’ or ‘c’ phenotype White ‘i’ present with ‘ C ’ phenotype White Recessive allele phenotype is white Gene ‘I’ inhibit the expression of ‘C’

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DUPLICATE (15:1)

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Duplicate (15:1) Two pair of non-allelic gene affect the same character in such a way that either one of them or both in dominant condition produces same phenotypic effect. Absence of both dominant factor result in the production of different phenotype. Observed in Awned & awnless character in rice. Awned condition dominant over awnless.

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X A 1 A 1 A 2 A 2 a 1 a 1 a 2 a 2 A 1 a 1 A 2 a 2 A 1 A 2 A 1 a 2 a 1 A 1 F 1 a 1 a 2 Awned Awnless Awned Gametes

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A 1 A 2 A 1 a 2 a 1 A 2 a 1 a 2 A 1 A 2 A 1 A 1 A 2 A 2 A 1 A 1 A 2 a 2 A 1 a 1 A 2 A 2 A 1 a 1 A 2 a 2 A 1 a 2 A 1 A 1 A 2 a 2 A 1 A 1 a 2 a 2 A 1 a 1 A 2 a 2 A 1 a 1 a 2 a 2 a 1 A 2 A 1 a 1 A 2 A 2 A 1 a 1 A 2 a 2 a 1 a 1 A 2 A 2 a 1 a 1 A 2 a 2 a 1 a 2 A 1 a 1 A 2 a 2 A 1 a 1 a 2 a 2 a 1 a 1 A 2 a 2 a 1 a 1 a 2 a 2 15 Awned : 1 Awnless F 2 ‘A 1 & A 2 ’ present together – Awned condition ‘A 1 / A 2 ’ present alone – Awned condition Recessive a 1 & a 2 - Awnless

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POLYMORPHISM (9:6:1)

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Polymorphism (9:6:1) Two pair of gene effect the same character in such a way that when both are present together produces double effect. Wheat pericarp colour viz ., deep red, light red & colurless.

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X r 1 r 1 r 2 r 2 R 1 r 1 R 2 r 2 R 1 R 2 R 1 r 2 r 1 R 1 F 1 r 1 r 2 Deep Red Colourless Deep Red Gametes R 1 R 1 R 2 R 2

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R 1 R 2 R 1 r 2 r 1 R 2 r 1 r 2 R 1 R 2 R 1 R 1 R 2 R 2 R 1 R 1 R 2 r 2 R 1 r 1 R 2 R 2 R 1 r 1 R 2 r 2 R 1 r 2 R 1 R 1 R 2 r 2 R 1 R 1 r 2 r 2 R 1 r 1 R 2 r 2 R 1 r 1 r 2 r 2 r 1 R 2 R 1 r 1 R 2 R 2 R 1 r 1 R 2 r 2 r 1 r 1 R 2 R 2 r 1 r 1 R 2 r 2 r 1 r 2 R 1 r 1 R 2 r 2 R 1 r 1 r 2 r 2 r 1 r 1 R 2 r 2 r 1 r 1 r 2 r 2 9 Deep Red : 6 Light Red : 1 Colourless F 2 ‘R 1 & R 2 ’ present together – Deep Red ‘R 1 / R 2 ’ present alone – Light Red Recessive r 1 & r 2 - Colourless