NUTRACEUTICALS

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NUTRACEUTICALS :

1 Sunday, July 03, 2011 NUTRACEUTICALS The term “nutraceutical” combines the word “nutrient” (a nourishing food or food component) with “pharmaceutical (a medical drug). A nutraceutical is a food with a medical-health benefit, including the prevention and treatment of disease. The term was coined in the late 1980s by Stephen DeFelice, M.D., founder and chairman of the Foundation for Innovation in Medicine OR As commonly defined by the dietary supplement industry, “any nontoxic food component that has scientifically proven health benefits, including disease treatment and prevention..

Several terms need to be defined in order to gain an understanding of nutraceuticals :

Sunday, July 03, 2011 2 Several terms need to be defined in order to gain an understanding of nutraceuticals Nutrient: “a feed constituent in a form and at a level that will help support the life of an animal.” The chief classes of feed nutrients are proteins, fats, carbohydrates, minerals and vitamins Feed: “edible materials which are consumed by animals and contribute energy and/or nutrients to the animal’s diet.” Food: As defined by the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (1968), “an article that provides taste, aroma or nutritive value. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Drug: “a substance intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment or prevention of disease in man or other animals. A substance other than food intended to affect the structure or any function of the body of man or other animals.”

CONT…………:

Sunday, July 03, 2011 3 CONT………… Dietary Supplement: As defined by the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA, 1994), “a product that contains one or more of the following dietary ingredients: vitamin, mineral, herb, or other botanical, and amino acid (protein). Includes any possible component of the diet as well as concentrates, constituents, extracts or metabolites of these compounds.”

APPLICATIONS OF NUTRACEUTICALS :

Sunday, July 03, 2011 4 APPLICATIONS OF NUTRACEUTICALS CLASS/COMPONENT SOURCE POTENTIAL BENIFIT Beta-carotene Carrots, various fruits Neutralizes free radicals, which may damage cells; bolsters cellular antioxidan t defenses Lycopene Tomatoes and processed May contribute to maintenance of prostate tomato products health Monosaturated fatty acids Tree nuts May reduce risk of coronary heart disease Flavonols Onions, apples, tea, broccoli Neutralize free radicals, which may damage cells; bolster cellular , antioxidant defenses

CONT……….:

Sunday, July 03, 2011 5 CONT………. Soy protein Soybeans and soy-based foods May reduce risk of coronary heart disease Dithiolthiones Cruciferous vegetable May contribute to maintenance of healthy immune function Lactobacilli, bifidobacteria Yogurt, other dairy and May improve gastrointestinal nondairy applications health and systematic immunity Sugar alcohols Some chewing gums May reduce risk of dental caries (cavities (xylitol, sorbitol, mannitol, lactitol) and other food applications

FDA-approved health claims showing a positive relationship between a certain compound and reduced risk of specific disease.:

Sunday, July 03, 2011 6 FDA-approved health claims showing a positive relationship between a certain compound and reduced risk of specific disease. Potassium High blood pressure and stroke Plant sterol and plant stanol esters Coronary heart disease Soy protein Coronary heart disease Calcium Osteoporosis Fiber-containing grain products, fruits and vegetables Cancer Fruits, vegetables and grain products that contain fiber, Coronary heart disease particularly soluble fiber Fruits and vegetables Cancer Dietary soluble fiber, such as that found in whole oat Coronary heart disease and psyllium seed husk Dietary sugar alcohol Dental caries (cavities )

FDA-approved health claims are based on diets low in “negative” nutrients in food, such as sodium. These health claims shows a relationship between certain compounds and an increased riskof disease(s): :

Sunday, July 03, 2011 7 FDA-approved health claims are based on diets low in “negative” nutrients in food, such as sodium. These health claims shows a relationship between certain compounds and an increased riskof disease(s): Dietary fat Cancer Dietary saturated fat and cholesterol Coronary heart disease Sodium High blood pressure

Interest In Nutraceuticals :

Sunday, July 03, 2011 8 Interest In Nutraceuticals Nutraceutical have the potential to play a role in healthy eating and to contribute to the prevention and treatment of diseases so that how functional components in foods could expand the role of disease prevention and treatment The nutraceuticals are preferred due to- Since new molecule is difficult to discover and more expensive and risky then ever before, many pharmaceutical companies are now trying to nutraceuticals so that there is undoubtedly a very huge and growing market The belief among consumers that these “food like substances” are either harmless or least toxic as compared to conventional pharmaceuticals Increased healthcare costs with conventional pharmaceuticals, recent legislation and scientific discoveries Inappropriate dietary habits are seen as contributing to the leading cause of deaths of due to coronary heart disease, certain type of cancers etc. the role of nutraceuticals in treating these Conditions is thus speculated. Nutraceuticals are gaining popularity as people are relying on them for safeguarding their health and avoiding side effects associated with drugs as well Long history of use and better patient tolerance as well as public acceptance Plants constitute to be a major source of new lead generation

Nutritional Supplements :

Sunday, July 03, 2011 9 Nutritional Supplements Aging baby boomers Energy and preventive care early senior Health maintenance care late seniors Rising heart and bone problems among aged population. Dissatisfaction with modern medicine Increased side effects Rising healthcare cost in modern treatment Increase acceptance of alternative treatments Economical Less side effects Use in diseases which are untreated by modern medicine

CLASSIFICATION:

Sunday, July 03, 2011 10 CLASSIFICATION The food products used as nutraceutical contain the following- except probiotics ; all the components are in fruits, vegetables and different type of herbal foods 23. 1 Antioxidant 2 Prebiotics 3  Probiotics 4  Omega 3 fatty acid 5  Dietary fibers

ANTIOXIDANTS :

Sunday, July 03, 2011 11 ANTIOXIDANTS Antioxidants are substances, which retard or prevent deterioration, damage or destruction caused by oxidation. the common disease and ailments of 21st century (CVS, diabetes, cataracts, high blood pressure, infertilities, respiratory infection, and rheumatoid arthritis) are associated with tissue deficiency and/or low dietary levels of compounds called antioxidants.During oxidation free radicals are generated. These free radicals at a molecular level burn everything they touch24. Antioxidants are power full electron donors and react with free radical damage the biomolecules. The formed antioxidant radical is stable and unreactive

CONT………:

Sunday, July 03, 2011 12 CONT……… Antioxidants are quite large in number and diverse in nature which oppose the process of oxidation largely by neutralizing free radicals at relatively small concentrations have the potential to inhibit to inhibit the oxidants chain reactions . Dietary antioxidants and some accessory molecules, such as zinc and certain vitamins are important in maintaining free radical scavenging systems, biosynthetic capacity, membranes, enzymes . Antioxidants are found in the vegetable oils. eg- Soybean oil, canola oil, corn oil, oat oil, wheat germ oil, palm oil, evening prime rose oil.

Classification of antioxidants :

Sunday, July 03, 2011 13 Classification of antioxidants Vitamins   Vitamin C, vitamin E Carotenoids   β-Carotine, lycopine Thiols   lipoic Acid, gutathione Enzymes         Co-Enzyme Q-10, super oxide dismastase Selenium Minerals, copper, manganese, zinc

Probiotics :

Sunday, July 03, 2011 14 Probiotics Probiotics are live microbial food ingredients, which are beneficial to health.Colon is the most densely populated region of the gastrointestinal tract and harbors an estimated 500 different bacterial species. Probiotic bacterial species The various types of bacteria that are having the probiotics characteristics are- Lactobacilli Lactobacillus rhamnosus Lactobacillus reuteri Lactobacillus case Bifidobacterium breve Streptococcus

Characteristics of probiotic bacteria:

Sunday, July 03, 2011 15 Characteristics of probiotic bacteria Bacteria should have the following features: 1. GRAS (generally recognized as safe) 2 .  In vitro resistance to hydrochloric acid and pancreatic juice 3 .  Produce antimicrobial substances 4.   Compete with bad bacteria to adhere on the gut wall. 5.   Compete for the nutrients and stimulate immunity and 6 .Alter the intestinal micro flora balance, inhibit growth of harmful bacteria, promote good digestion, boost immune function and increase resistance to infection.

PREBIOTICS:

Sunday, July 03, 2011 16 PREBIOTICS Prebiotics are the substances, which reach to colon in intact form i.e. without getting depleted by the gastric pH and digestive acids. These prebiotics also selectively promote the growth of colonel probiotic bacteria; hence they act as fertilizers for these bacteria. These are collective term for non-digestive but a fermentable dietary carbohydrate that may selectively stimulates growth of certain bacterial groups’ resident in the colon, such as Bifidobacteria, Lactobacilli considered to be beneficial for the human host. inulin, which is soluble dietary fibres and resistant to digestive enzyme and thus reaches to large intestine or colon essentially intact, where it is fermented by resistant bacteria, Lactobacilli .

A range of oligosaccharides have been tested using various in vitro methods, animal models and human clinical trials are – :

Sunday, July 03, 2011 17 A range of oligosaccharides have been tested using various in vitro methods, animal models and human clinical trials are – Fructo oligosaccharides Inulins Lactilol Lactulose Soybean oligosaccharides Lactosucrose Isomalto-oligosaccharides Gluco-oligosaccharides Xylo-oligosaccharides

The food components or ingredients (prebiotics) :

Sunday, July 03, 2011 18 The food components or ingredients (prebiotics) Resists host digestion, absorption and absorption processes. Fermented by the microflora colonizing the gastrointestinal system. Selectively stimulates the growth and/or the activity of one or a limited number of bacteria with the gastrointestinal system

Polyunsaturated fatty acids :

Sunday, July 03, 2011 19 Polyunsaturated fatty acids Essential fatty acids are needed for normal growth and development but cannot be synthesized by our body Omega-3 fatty acids belong to this class. Long chain omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaoic acid and docosagexanoic acids are built up in algae and plankton and the fish living on them. The natural vegetable oils and marine animal oils containing polyunsaturated fatty acid belong to Linoleic group (omega 6-type and omega 3-fatty acid) help to reduce cholesterol formation/deposition and prevent thromboxane formation. EX- safflower oil, corn oil, soybean oil, mustard oil and marine fishes32. Evening primrose oil, flax oil, hemp seed, borage seede33.

The following are diseases for which polyunsaturated fatty acids are preferred:

Sunday, July 03, 2011 20 The following are diseases for which polyunsaturated fatty acids are preferred Heart disease and stroke Rheumatoid arthritis Inflammatory arthritis Inflammatory bowel disease Asthma Cancer Chronic lung failure Kidney transplant

DIETARY FIBRES:

Sunday, July 03, 2011 21 DIETARY FIBRES Dietary fibres are used in health food products for normalization of intestinal transit time. They have dual effect on intestinal transit. First effect is on the bulk faeces, which are often increased, in substantial proportion (127% after ingestion of 20 g of wheat bran, this action with insoluble fibres. The other effect if dietary fibres are upon the duration of transit, which gets normalized around in 48 hrs. Long transit time gets shortened and short transit get longer. Dietary fibres are categorized into two groups Water soluble fibres Soluble fibres dissolve in water and form a gel that binds the stool and inhibit the non-propulsive colon contractions, helps in bulking of stool and their quick passage through digestive tract. Oats, dried beans, legumes, chicory.

CONT…….:

Sunday, July 03, 2011 22 CONT……. Water insoluble fibres Insoluble fibres are present in brown rice, banana, vegetables and whole grains. Source of dietary fibres are – Fresh fruit Apple, orange, apricot, plum, pineapple with fibres 18-30% Vegetables Cabbage, carrot, lettuce, onion, tomato with fibres 9 to 12 %

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Sunday, July 03, 2011 23 THANKS