Grade 8. Ch 7. Conservation of Plants and Animals

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Chapter 7 Conservation of Plants & Animals Grade VIII - Shilpa Yadav

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Check Existing Knowledge What do you understand by the term ‘Symbiosis’ ? What is the meaning of the term ‘biodiversity’ ? What do you understand by ‘Biosphere Reserves’? Grade VIII - Shilpa Yadav CONSERVATION OF PLANTS & ANIMALS

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Learning Objectives Biodiversity Flora and Fauna Biosphere Reserves Endangered Species Conservation of Plants & Animals Conservation of forests & Wildlife Red Data Book Grade VIII - Shilpa Yadav CONSERVATION OF PLANTS & ANIMALS

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Ecosystem Living organisms do not live in isolation All living organisms (animals and plants) need food and other materials from their surroundings to survive Grade VIII - Shilpa Yadav Life of an organism is, thus, affected by the living and non-living things around it An ecosystem is made up of all the plants, animals and microorganisms in an area, along with all the non-living components, such as climate, soil, rtivers , etc CONSERVATION OF PLANTS & ANIMALS

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Biodiversity Though all living organisms have some fundamental similarities, yet nature is full of fascinating diverse forms of living organisms Wide range of different types of organisms which grow, multiply and thrive naturally, are found at any given time in a particular habitat Grade VIII - Shilpa Yadav Tropical rainforest CONSERVATION OF PLANTS & ANIMALS Desert

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Biodiversity Grade VIII - Shilpa Yadav This wide range of different types of organisms in an area constitute the biodiversity (or biological diversity) of the area Biodiversity can be defined as the variety of plants, animals and microorganisms generally found in an area Plants and animals found in a particular region are known as flora and fauna respectively of that region. They together form the biodiversity of the area The flora and fauna of a country are very important renewable natural resources The management of forests and wildlife resources is therefore essential CONSERVATION OF PLANTS & ANIMALS

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Forest Wealth Grade VIII - Shilpa Yadav 67.71 million hectares (20.6% or about one – fifth) of India’s landmass is under forest cover CONSERVATION OF PLANTS & ANIMALS Timber (construction, furniture), wood (fuel), wood pulp (paper), latex (rubber), turpentine, resin, gum, lac and medicinal plants Wildlife Maintaining correct balance between O 2 and CO 2 Regulation of temperature of earth Maintain water cycle by releasing water during transpiration Maintain the water table, by absorbing rainwater Prevent soil erosion

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Deforestation Grade VIII - Shilpa Yadav Cutting down forests and using the land for other purposes is known as deforestation Build homes, factories, roads, dams For farming, as more food is needed to feed the growing population CONSERVATION OF PLANTS & ANIMALS For mining of minerals such as coal, petroleum and ores To get wood Natural causes such as drought, forest fires, diseases and attack by pests and insects

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Increase in soil erosion. As the top soil gets eroded, the lower hard rocky soil with less humus gets exposed. This soil is less fertile. Over time, continued soil erosion can convert the land into a desert. This is called desertification Causes an increase in CO 2 proportion in the air. CO 2 layer traps the heat rays reflected by the earth’s surface and causes global warming Increase in atmospheric temperature can affect the water cycle and may result in lower rainfall. This results in droughts Reduction in groundwater due to reduced water absorption. This also leads to floods Shortage of forest products Extinction/ reduction in wildlife Consequences of Deforestation Grade VIII - Shilpa Yadav CONSERVATION OF PLANTS & ANIMALS

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Wildlife Grade VIII - Shilpa Yadav Wildlife population decreasing due to changes in environment brought about by humans Man has cleared forests, converted grasslands into farmlands, flooded large areas by constructing dams, drained swamps and polluted the air and water This has led to the destruction of the habitat of wildlife and has disturbed the delicate balance of nature CONSERVATION OF PLANTS & ANIMALS

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Extinct Animals Grade VIII - Shilpa Yadav CONSERVATION OF PLANTS & ANIMALS

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Endangered Animals Grade VIII - Shilpa Yadav CONSERVATION OF PLANTS & ANIMALS

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Conservation of Forests & Wildlife Grade VIII - Shilpa Yadav CONSERVATION OF PLANTS & ANIMALS Planned harvesting, ie cutting only some of the trees in an area. Uncut trees prevent erosion and produce seeds for new trees to grow Afforestation (or Reforestation) , ie renewing a forest by planting seedlings or small trees of the same species as found in the forest. At least as many trees as are cut must be planted Protection from forest fires by spraying fire extinguishing solutions from aircraft or by changing the wind direction by using strong blowers Protection from insects and pests by using insecticides, fungicides and removing infected trees/ plants Protection from overgrazing, by using pastures in rotation Habitat Preservation Hunting Regulations

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Reforestation Grade VIII - Shilpa Yadav CONSERVATION OF PLANTS & ANIMALS

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Biosphere Reserve Grade VIII - Shilpa Yadav CONSERVATION OF PLANTS & ANIMALS A large protected area set aside for conservation of wildlife, plant, animal and microorganism resources, and the traditional life of the tribals living in that area National Parks and Wildlife sanctuaries are protected forests to preserve wildlife . They provide protection and suitable living conditions for wild animals. The animals can breed and multiply in these areas A biosphere reserve may have national parks and wildlife sanctuaries within it. Panchmarhi Biosphere Reserve in Madhya Pradesh contains one National Park ( Satpura National Park) and two wildlife sanctuaries ( Bori , Pancmarhi ) within it

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India - Wildlife Sanctuaries Grade VIII - Shilpa Yadav CONSERVATION OF PLANTS & ANIMALS

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India - Bird Sanctuaries and Marine Parks Grade VIII - Shilpa Yadav CONSERVATION OF PLANTS & ANIMALS

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India – National Parks Grade VIII - Shilpa Yadav CONSERVATION OF PLANTS & ANIMALS

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India – Wildlife Sancturies Grade VIII - Shilpa Yadav CONSERVATION OF PLANTS & ANIMALS

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Biosphere Reserve Grade VIII - Shilpa Yadav CONSERVATION OF PLANTS & ANIMALS A large protected area set aside for conservation of wildlife, plant, animal and microorganism resources, and the traditional life of the tribals living in that area National Parks and Wildlife sanctuaries are protected forests to preserve wildlife . They provide protection and suitable living conditions for wild animals. The animals can breed and multiply in these areas A biosphere reserve may have national parks and wildlife sanctuaries within it. Panchmarhi Biosphere Reserve in Madhya Pradesh contains one National Park ( Satpura National Park) and two wildlife sanctuaries ( Bori , Pancmarhi ) within it

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Endemic Species Grade VIII - Shilpa Yadav CONSERVATION OF PLANTS & ANIMALS Plants ands animals are distributed non-uniformly on the globe Humans, dogs and cats are widespread and inhabit most regions Others have restricted distributions and may be found only in limited regions such a particular forest, an island, a river or a lake These highly restricted organisms are called endemic species as they are unique to a specific region Indian giant squirrel and flying squirrel are endemic to Panchmarhi Biosphere Reserve Area Asiatic lion is believed to reside only in the Gir National Park in Gujarat

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Red Data Book Grade VIII - Shilpa Yadav CONSERVATION OF PLANTS & ANIMALS The International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) assesses the conservation status od species around the world Highlight those threatened with extinction, with the aim of promoting their conservation IUCN maintains a Red List, which is a compilation of endangered wildlife species It also maintains a Red Data Book, which provides data on population status of the species included in the Red List Red Data Book classifies species in different categories – ‘extinct’, ‘critically endangered’, ‘endangered’ and ‘vulnerable’

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Migration Grade VIII - Shilpa Yadav CONSERVATION OF PLANTS & ANIMALS Migration is the movement of animals from its own habitat to some other habitat for a particular time period every year due to climatic changes or for breeding. Birds which fly very long distances to reach another land are called migratory birds

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Learning Outcome You should now be able to do the following: Understand Bio diversity Understand about importance of conservation of fauna and flora Find out about Wildlife sanctuaries and Biosphere Reserves Understand the importance of protecting endangered species Explain Red Data Book Grade VIII - Shilpa Yadav CONSERVATION OF PLANTS & ANIMALS

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? Grade VIII - Shilpa Yadav CONSERVATION OF PLANTS & ANIMALS

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Quiz MCQ The plants found in a particular region are known as : a. Fauna b. Flora c. Endangered Species d. Endemic species 2) Which of these is not a conservation category : Extinct b. Endangered c. Endemic d. Vulnerable 3) Which of these is not caused by deforestation: Desertification b. Global Warming c. Reduction in ground water d. Storms 4) Dodo is a: Endangered species b. Extinct species c. Vulnerable species d. Critically endangered species Different species are classified into different threat categories in the ________ Data Book : a. Blue b. Black c. Red d. Yellow Grade VIII - Shilpa Yadav CONSERVATION OF PLANTS & ANIMALS

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Quiz Fill in the blanks If all the trees in a forest are cut, it will lead to _____________ of soil _____________ by cattle should be controlled for forest conservation The flora and fauna of a country are among the most important _____________ resources Wildlife conservation and ________________ conservation are closely related Saving paper means saving _____________ Grade VIII - Shilpa Yadav CONSERVATION OF PLANTS & ANIMALS

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