Slide 1: Motivation at Work By: Sheeba Rehman Definition of Motivation : Definition of Motivation Motivation –
The driving force within individuals by which they attempt to achieve some goal in order to fulfill some needs or expectation.
The degree to which an individual wants to choose in certain behavior. Motivation as a process.. : Motivation as a process.. It is a process by which a person’s efforts are energized,directed and sustained towards attaining the goal.
Energy- A measure of intensity or drive.
Direction- Towards organizational goal.
Persistence- Exerting effort to achieve goal
Motivation works best when individual needs are compatible with organizational goal. Basic model of motivation : Basic model of motivation Needs or
expectations Result in Drive force
Action) To Achieve Desired Goals Which Provides fulfillments Feedback Motivation is… : Motivation is… Complex
Unique to each and every person
Not fully understood Qualities of Motivation : Qualities of Motivation Energizes behavior
Enable persistence towards a goal
Exists in varying details Six C’s of Motivation.. : Six C’s of Motivation.. Choices collaboration Constructing meaning Consequences Control Challenges Groups of Motivational Theories : Groups of Motivational Theories Internal
Suggest that variables within the individual give rise to motivation and behavior
Example: Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory
Emphasize the nature of the interaction between the individual and the environment
Example: Expectancy theory
Focus on environmental elements to explain behavior
Example: Two-factor theory Early Theories of Motivation : Early Theories of Motivation Content Theories:
Emphasis on what motivates individuals.
Maslow’s need Hierarchy
Macgregor's Theories X & Y
Herzberg’s two factors theory Slide 10: Process Theories of Motivation
Emphasis on actual process of motivation.
Three needs Theory ( McClelland)
Designing Motivating theory
Expectancy Theory Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs theory : Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs theory Needs were categories as five levels of lower-higher-order needs.
Individual must satisfy lower-level needs before they can satisfy higher order needs.
Satisfied needs will no longer motivate.
Motivating a person depends on knowing at what level that a person is on the hierarchy. Slide 12: POTENCY of NEEDS The needs are INNATE, but they are not of equal potency (strength). They are arranged in a hierarchy of potency. AN INDIVIDUAL IS MOTIVATED BY HER/HIS MOST POTENT
UNSATISFIED NEED Slide 13: HIERARCHY and SEQUENCE What Is a Hierarchy?
You must successfully complete (resolve, equilibrate one stage before you go to the next.)
How Is Hierarchy Related To Sequence?
All hierarchical theories are sequential, but not all sequential theories are hierarchical. Hierarchy of Needs : Hierarchy of Needs Lover order ( External ) : Physiological and safety needs
Higher order ( Internal ) : Social, Esteem, and Self-actualization Physiological needs Safety Needs Social Needs Esteem Needs Self-Actualization Needs McGregor’s Theory X and Y : McGregor’s Theory X and Y Theory X
Assume that workers have little ambition,dislike work, avoid responsibility,and require close supervision.
Assumes that workers can exercise self-direction,desire, responsibility, and like to work.
Motivation is maximized by participative decision making, interesting jobs, and good group relation. Motivational Theories X & Y : Motivational Theories X & Y Social Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory : Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory Job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are created y different factors.
Hygiene factors- Extrinsic ( Environmental ) factors that create job dissatisfaction.
Motivation Factors- Intrinsic ( Psychological ) factors that create job satisfaction.
Attempted to explain why job satisfaction does not result in increased performance
The opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction but rather no satisfaction. Motivation–Hygiene Theory of Motivation : Motivation–Hygiene Theory of Motivation Alderfer’s ERG Theory : Alderfer’s ERG Theory Existence Relatedness Growth McClelland’s Need Theory: Need for Achievement : McClelland’s Need Theory: Need for Achievement Need for Achievement ( nAch)
The desire to excel and succeed McClelland’s Need Theory:Need for Power : McClelland’s Need Theory:Need for Power Need for Power – ( nPow )
The need to influence the behavior of others. McClelland’s Need Theory:Need for Affiliation : McClelland’s Need Theory:Need for Affiliation Need for Affiliation – ( nAff )
The desire for interpersonal relationship Motivational Need Theories : Self-actualization Motivational Need Theories Maslow Alderfer McClelland Higher
interpersonal Safety & Security interpersonal
physical Need for
Achievement Need for
Power Relatedness Need for
Affiliation Existence Growth Belongingness(social & love) Physiological Adams’s Theory of Inequity : Adams’s Theory of Inequity Inequity - the situation in which a person perceives he or she is receiving less than he or she is giving, or is giving less than he or she is receiving Motivational Theory of Social Exchange : Motivational Theory of Social Exchange Equity Outcomes = Outcomes Inputs Inputs Strategies for Resolution of Inequity : Strategies for Resolution of Inequity Alter the person’s outcomes
Alter the person’s inputs
Alter the comparison other’s outputs
Alter the comparison other’s inputs
Change who is used as a comparison other
Rationalize the inequity
Leave the organizational situation New Perspectives on Equity Theory : New Perspectives on Equity Theory Equity Sensitive I prefer an equity ratio equal to that of my comparison other New Perspectives on Equity Theory : New Perspectives on Equity Theory Benevolent I am comfortable with an equity ratio less than that of my comparison other New Perspectives on Equity Theory : New Perspectives on Equity Theory Entitled I am comfortable with an equity ratio greater than that of my comparison other Expectancy Theory of Motivation: Key Constructs : Expectancy Theory of Motivation: Key Constructs Valence - value or importance placed on a particular reward
Expectancy - belief that effort leads to performance
Instrumentality - belief that performance is related to rewards Expectancy Model of Motivation : Expectancy Model of Motivation Performance Reward Effort Effort Perceived effort–
value of reward Perceived
reward probability “If I work hard,
will I get the job
done?” “What rewards
will I get when
the job is well done?” “What rewards
do I value?”