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Social problems developed in the large groups of workers employed under the factory system. Managers began to focus on increasing the efficiency of the worker-task mix. Slide 3: Evolution of Management Theory Job Specialization and the Division of Labor : Job Specialization and the Division of Labor Adam Smith (18th century economist) Observed that firms manufactured pins in one of two different ways: Craft-style—each worker did all steps. Production—each worker specialized in one step. Realized that job specialization resulted in much higher efficiency and productivity Breaking down the total job allowed for the division of labor in which workers became very skilled at their specific tasks. F.W. Taylor and Scientific Management : F.W. Taylor and Scientific Management Scientific Management The systematic study of the relationships between people and tasks for the purpose of redesigning the work process for higher efficiency. Defined by Frederick Taylor in the late 1800’s to replace informal rule of thumb knowledge. Taylor sought to reduce the time a worker spent on each task by optimizing the way the task was done. Four Principles of Scientific Management : Four Principles of Scientific Management Principles to increase efficiency: Study the ways jobs are performed now and determine new ways to do them. Gather detailed time and motion information. Try different methods to see which is best. Codify the new methods into rules. Teach to all workers the new method. Select workers whose skills match the rules. Establish fair levels of performance and pay a premium for higher performance. Workers should benefit from higher output Problems with Scientific Management : Problems with Scientific Management Managers frequently implemented only the increased output side of Taylor’s plan. Workers did not share in the increased output. Specialized jobs became very boring, dull. Workers ended up distrusting the Scientific Management method. Workers could purposely “under-perform.” Management responded with increased use of machines and conveyors belts. Frank and Lillian Gilbreth : Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Refined Taylor’s work and made many improvements to the methodologies of time and motion studies. Time and motion studies Breaking up each job action into its components. Finding better ways to perform the action. Reorganizing each job action to be more efficient. Also studied worker-related fatigue problems caused by lighting, heating, and the design of tools and machines. Administrative Management Theory : Administrative Management Theory Administrative Management The study of how to create an organizational structure that leads to high efficiency and effectiveness. Max Weber Developed the concept of bureaucracy as a formal system of organization and administration designed to ensure efficiency and effectiveness. Weber’s Principles of Bureaucracy : Weber’s Principles of Bureaucracy Weber’s Five Principles of Bureaucracy : Weber’s Five Principles of Bureaucracy Authority is the power to hold people accountable for their actions. Positions in the firm should be held based on performance, not social contacts. Position duties are clearly identified so that people know what is expected of them. Lines of authority should be clearly identified such that workers know who reports to who. Rules, standard operating procedures (SOPs), and norms guide the firm’s operations. Fayol’s Principles of Management : Fayol’s Principles of Management Division of Labor: allows for job specialization. Fayol noted jobs can have too much specialization leading to poor quality and worker dissatisfaction. Authority and Responsibility Fayol included both formal and informal authority resulting from special expertise. Unity of Command Employees should have only one boss. Fayol’s Principles of Management (cont’d) : Fayol’s Principles of Management (cont’d) Line of Authority A clear chain of command from top to bottom of the firm. Centralization The degree to which authority rests at the top of the organization. Unity of Direction A single plan of action to guide the organization. Fayol’s Principles of Management (cont’d) : Fayol’s Principles of Management (cont’d) Equity The provision of justice and the fair and impartial treatment of all employees. Order The arrangement of employees where they will be of the most value to the organization and to provide career opportunities. Initiative The fostering of creativity and innovation by encouraging employees to act on their own. Fayol’s Principles of Management (cont’d) : Fayol’s Principles of Management (cont’d) Discipline Obedient, applied, respectful employees are necessary for the organization to function. Remuneration of Personnel An equitable uniform payment system that motivates contributes to organizational success. Stability of Tenure of Personnel Long-term employment is important for the development of skills that improve the organization’s performance. Fayol’s Principles of Management (cont’d) : Fayol’s Principles of Management (cont’d) Subordination of Individual Interest to the Common Interest The interest of the organization takes precedence over that of the individual employee. Esprit de corps Comradeship, shared enthusiasm foster devotion to the common cause (organization). Behavioral Management Theory : Behavioral Management Theory Behavioral Management The study of how managers should behave to motivate employees and encourage them to perform at high levels and be committed to the achievement of organizational goals. Focuses on the way a manager should personally manage to motivate employees. Behavioral Management : Behavioral Management Mary Parker Follett An influential leader in early managerial theory Held a horizontal view of power and authority in organizations Suggested workers help in analyzing their jobs for improvements—the worker knows the best way to improve the job. If workers have relevant knowledge of the task, then they should control the task. Management Science Theory : Management Science Theory An approach to management that uses rigorous quantitative techniques to maximize the use of organizational resources. Quantitative management—utilizes linear programming, modeling, simulation systems. Operations management—techniques to analyze all aspects of the production system. Total Quality Management (TQM)—focuses on improving quality throughout an organization. Management Information Systems (MIS)—provides information about the organization. Organizational Environment Theory : Organizational Environment Theory Organizational Environment The set of forces and conditions that operate beyond an organization’s boundaries but affect a manager’s ability to acquire and utilize resources. The Open-Systems View : The Open-Systems View Open System A system that takes resources for its external environment and converts them into goods and services that are then sent back to that environment for purchase by customers. Inputs: the acquisition of external resources. Conversion: the processing of inputs into goods and services. Output: the release of finished goods into the environment. The Organization as an Open System : The Organization as an Open System Other System Considerations : Other System Considerations Closed system A system that is self-contained and thus not affected by changes occurring in its external environment. Often undergoes entropy and loses its ability to control itself, and fails. Synergy Performance that results when individuals and departments coordinate their actions Performance gains of the whole surpass the sum of the performance of the individual components. Contingency Theory : Contingency Theory Contingency Theory The idea that the organizational structures and control systems manager choose depend on—are contingent on—characteristics of the external environment in which the organization operates. Assumes there is no one best way to manage. The environment impacts the firm and managers must be flexible to react to environmental changes. In rapidly changing organizational environments, managers must find ways to coordinate different departments to respond quickly and effectively. Contingency Theory of Organizational Design : Contingency Theory of Organizational Design Mechanistic and Organic Structures : Mechanistic and Organic Structures Mechanistic Structure Authority is centralized at the top. (Theory X) Employees are closely monitored and managed. Can be very efficient in a stable environment. Organic structure Authority is decentralized throughout the organization. (Theory Y) Tasks and roles are left ambiguous to encourage employees to react quickly to changing environment. You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.