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Edit Comment Close Premium member Presentation Transcript Types of animal testing : Types of animal testing Eye Irritancy: a substance is placed in one eye, with the other eye serving as a control Victims: Rabbits suffer from redness, bleeding, ulcers, and even blindness, and are likely killed upon completion of the experiment Acute Toxicity: is used to determine the danger of exposure to a chemical by mouth, skin, or inhalation Victims: Rats and mice are killed ay the end of the test so that a necropsy can be performed to determine internal damage Repeated dose toxicity: looks at the amount of substance required to create toxic effects in one dose, repeated dose toxicity is used to evaluate chronic toxic effects, primarily effects on various organ systems Victims: Rodents and dogs are evaluated during the test period and then killed at the end to look for signs of organ or body system damage Skin Corrosivity/Irritation: tests assess the potential of a substance to cause irreversible damage to the skin Victims: Rabbits Skin Sensitization: used to determine if a chemical causes an allergic reaction Victims: Guinea pigs. Mice are still killed after their use in these tests. Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics and Metabolism: measure the rates of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of toxic substances Victims: Rats and mice are then killed and examined for the accumulation of the test chemicals in their organs Dermal Penetration: analyze the movement of a chemical through the skin and into the bloodstream Victims: rats are killed and the amount of test substance absorbed is estimated Types of animal testing continued… : Types of animal testing continued… Mutagenicity: changes the genetic information of an organism and thus increases the frequency of mutations Victims: many mutations cause cancer, mutagens are typically also carcinogens Carcinogenicity: substances that induces cancer or increases the incidences of cancer Victims: usually rats and mice Reproductive & Developmental Toxicity: the toxic effects of a substance on the reproductive ability of an organism, and the toxic effects on the development of its offspring. Victims: rats and mice Neurotoxicity: aim to find out if substances cause alterations to the nervous system. Victims: hens and rats Ecotoxicity: to determine the negative effects of chemicals entering the environment Victims: fishes and crustaceans such as water fleas Pyrogenicity: to find any possible fever-causing contaminants in items such as vaccines and injectable drugs Victims: rabbits What do they mean? : What do they mean? Toxicology testing Toxicology tests are used to examine finished products such as pesticides, medications, food additives, packing materials, and air freshener, or their chemical ingredients. Most tests involve testing ingredients rather than finished products These tests overestimate the toxic effects of substances; they therefore repeat the tests using their finished products to obtain a less toxic label. What do they mean? : What do they mean? Cosmetics testing Cosmetics testing on animals is particularly controversial. Such tests, still conducted in the U.S., involve general toxicity, eye and skin irritancy, phototoxicity (toxicity triggered by ultraviolet light) and mutagenicity. Cosmetics testing is banned in the Netherlands, Belgium, and the UK, and in 2002, after 13 years of discussion, the European Union (EU) agreed to phase in a near-total ban on the sale of animal-tested cosmetics and all cosmetics-related animal testing. France, which is home to the world's largest cosmetics company, L'Oreal, has protested against the ban by lodging a case asking that the ban be quashed. What do they mean? : What do they mean? Drug testing Before the early 20th century, laws regulating drugs were laidback. Currently, all new pharmaceuticals undergo rigorous animal testing before being licensed for human use. Education, breeding, and defense Animals are also used for education and training; are bred for use in laboratories; And are used by the military to develop weapons, vaccines, battlefield surgical techniques, and defensive clothing. For example, in 2008 the United States Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency used live pigs to study the effects of improvised explosive device explosions on internal organs, especially the brain. Is it Ethical to test on animals? : Is it Ethical to test on animals? Humans do not have the right to use animals What is animal rights? the belief that animals have an built-in value separate from any value they have to humans are worthy of moral consideration have a right to be free of oppression, confinement, use and abuse by humans Is it Ethical to test on animals? : Is it Ethical to test on animals? We do not experiment on human subjects without their consent. It is the same as : not experimenting on humans who are incapable of consenting to experimentation Thus, we should not experiment on non-human animals Non-human animals cannot give informed consent, & the huge majority of experiments using animals are so invasive and detrimental, We would never even consider allowing humans to consent to being subjects in such experiments. Think about this : Think about this In World War 2, 6 million Jews were killed in the Holocoust by the Nazi Germany. Prisoners experienced enslavement, forced labor, torture and killing -> routine stuff in a concentration camp. Some prisoners were subjected to medical experiments for warfare test. The Holocaust was the ultimate exposure of man’s maliciousness wherein one man treated another like a guinea pig and ruthlessly carried on experimentation on healthy human beings to know how a human body and mind would respond to extreme cold, heat and pressure. Nazi Medical Experiments : Nazi Medical Experiments Sterilization Doctors carried out a compulsory sterilization program where they injected people with various drugs, especially women that lead to infections, inflammations and death. Genetic Experimentation on Twins The experimentation on the twins who were at times sewn together to observe if they could form conjoined twins and at times inject various drugs in the eyes of the twins to check if they changes colors. Infectious Disease Experiments Germs of diseases like Typhus and Malaria were injected into healthy people to discover cures for them so that when the Nazi soldiers were inflicted with such diseases on the warfront they could be treated. Slide 10: Now, human testing had been replaced by animal testing. How can that be different to that of the German Nazi? There’s no difference! It’s still cruel! Can you bear to see these? : Can you bear to see these? References : References Types of animal testing. In American Anti Vivisection Society. Retrieved March 1, 2010, from http://www.aavs.org/testingTypes.html Animal testing. (2010, February 24). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 05:37, March 3, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Animal_testing&oldid=346170962 Lin, D. Why it’s Wrong toTest on Animals: Vivisection and Animal Rights. In About.com: Animal Rights. Retrieved March 1, 2010, from http://www.aavs.org/testingTypes.html http://www.buzzle.com/articles/nazi-medical-experiments.html You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.