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MATHS PROJECT WORK ON INTERNATIONAL AND NATIONAL MATHAMATCIANS

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INTERNATIONAL MATHEMATICANS Often called the language of the universe, mathematics is fundamental to our understanding of the world and, as such, is vitally important in a modern society such as ours. Everywhere you look it is likely mathematics has made an impact, from the faucet in your kitchen to the satellite that beams your television programs to your home. As such, great mathematicians are undoubtedly going to rise above the rest and have their name embedded within history. This list documents some such people. I have rated them based on contributions and how they effected mathematics at the time, as well as their lasting effect. I also suggest one looks deeper into the lives of these men, as they are truly fascinating people and their discoveries are astonishing – too much to include here.

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Leonhard E uler

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Leonhard Euler If Gauss is the Prince, Euler is the King. Living from 1707 to 1783, he is regarded as the greatest mathematician to have ever walked this planet. It is said that all mathematical formulas are named after the next person after Euler to discover them. In his day he was ground breaking and on par with Einstein in genius. His primary (if that’s possible) contribution to the field is with the introduction of mathematical notation including the concept of a function (and how it is written as f(x)), shorthand trigonometric functions, the ‘e’ for the base of the natural logarithm (The Euler Constant), the Greek letter Sigma for summation and the letter ‘/ i ’ for imaginary units, as well as the symbol pi for the ratio of a circles circumference to its diameter. All of which play a huge bearing on modern mathematics, from the every day to the incredibly complex.

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E uclid

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Living around 300BC, he is considered the Father of Geometry and his magnum opus: Elements, is one the greatest mathematical works in history, with its being in use in education up until the 20th century. Unfortunately, very little is known about his life, and what exists was written long after his presumed death. Nonetheless, Euclid is credited with the instruction of the rigorous, logical proof for theorems and conjectures. Such a framework is still used to this day, and thus, arguably, he has had the greatest influence of all mathematicians on this list. Alongside his Elements were five other surviving works, thought to have been written by him, all generally on the topic of Geometry or Number theory. There are also another five works that have, sadly, been lost throughout history. Euclid

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René Descartes

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French Philosopher, Physicist and Mathematician Rene Descartes is best known for his ‘Cogito Ergo Sum’ philosophy. Despite this, the Frenchman, who lived 1596 to 1650, made ground breaking contributions to mathematics. Alongside this, and perhaps more familiar to the reader, is his development of Cartesian Geometry, known to most as the standard graph (Square grid lines, x and y axis, etc.) and its use of algebra to describe the various locations on such. Before this most geometers used plain paper (or another material or surface) to preform their art. Previously, such distances had to be measured literally, or scaled. With the introduction of Cartesian Geometry this changed dramatically, points could now be expressed as points on a graph, and as such, graphs could be drawn to any scale, also these points did not necessarily have to be numbers. The final contribution to the field was his introduction of superscripts within algebra to express powers . René Descartes

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Pythagoras

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Greek Mathematician Pythagoras is considered by some to be one of the first great mathematicians. Living around 570 to 495 BC, in modern day Greece, he is known to have founded the Pythagorean cult, who were noted by Aristotle to be one of the first groups to actively study and advance mathematics. He is also commonly credited with the Pythagorean Theorem within trigonometry. However, some sources doubt that is was him who constructed the proof (Some attribute it to his students, or Baudhayana , who lived some 300 years earlier in India). Nonetheless, the effect of such, as with large portions of fundamental mathematics, is commonly felt today, with the theorem playing a large part in modern measurements and technological equipment, as well as being the base of a large portion of other areas and theorems in mathematics. But, unlike most ancient theories, it played a bearing on the development of geometry, as well as opening the door to the study of mathematics as a worthwhile endeavor. Thus, he could be called the founding father of modern mathematics. Pythagoras

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Leonardo Pisano Blgollo

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Blgollo , also known as Leonardo Fibonacci, is perhaps one of the middle ages greatest mathematicians. Living from 1170 to 1250, he is best known for introducing the infamous Fibonacci Series to the western world. Although known to Indian mathematicians since approximately 200 BC, it was, nonetheless, a truly insightful sequence, appearing in biological systems frequently. Haven spent a large portion of his childhood within North Africa he learned the Arabic numbering system, and upon realizing it was far simpler and more efficient then the bulky Roman numerals, decided to travel the Arab world learning from the leading mathematicians of the day. Upon returning to Italy in 1202, he published his Liber Abaci, whereupon the Arabic numbers were introduced and applied to many world situations to further advocate their use. Leonardo Pisano Blgollo

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Now Some N ational Mathematicians

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R amanujan

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R amanujan HIS CHILDHOOD Ramanujan was born on 22 December 1887 in  Erode ,  Madras Presidency  (now  Tamil Nadu ), at the residence of his maternal grandparents. His father, K. Srinivasa Iyengar , worked as a clerk in a sari shop and hailed from the district of  Thanjavur . His mother, Komalatammal , was a  housewife  and also sang at a local temple.  They lived in Sarangapani Street in a traditional home in the town of Kumbakonam . HIS SCHOOLIFE On 1 October 1892, Ramanujan was enrolled at the local school. In March 1894, he was moved to a  Telugu medium  school. By age 11, he had exhausted the mathematical knowledge of two college students who were lodgers at his home. When he graduated from  Town Higher Secondary School  in 1904.

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HIS AWARDS Ramanujan was awarded the K. Ranganatha Rao prize for mathematics by the school's headmaster, Krishnaswami Iyer . Iyer introduced Ramanujan as an outstanding student who deserved scores higher than the maximum possible marks. On 14 July 1909, Ramanujan was married to a ten-year old bride, Janakiammal (21 March 1899 – 13 April 1994). She came from Rajendram , a village close to Marudur ( Karur district) Railway Station. HIS WORK IN MATHEMATICS He waited for a solution to be offered in three issues, over six months, but failed to receive any. At the end, Ramanujan supplied the solution to the problem himself. On page 105 of his first notebook, he formulated an equation that could be used to solve the infinitely  nested radicals  problem. R amanujan

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Radhanath

Radhanath: 

Radhanath was born as youngest child of Tituram , a resident of Jorasanko in Calcutta. Radhanath Sikdar was educated at " Phiringi " Kamal Bose's School and  Hindu School  in  Calcutta ,  India . Alone among the great  Derozians  he took to science as his life's mainstay. He worked for the Surveyor General of  India , a division of the  British Raj  in India. He joined the  Great Trigonometric Survey  in 1831. It is said that in recognition of Sikdar's mathematical genius a German learned society made him a Corresponding Member in 1864, a very rare honour those days. When in 1831  George Everest  was searching for a brilliant young mathematician with particular proficiency in  spherical trigonometry , the Hindu College maths teacher Dr. John Tytler superlatively recommended his pupil Radhanath, then only 19. Radhanath joined the  Great Trigonometric Survey  in 1831 December as a " computor " at a salary of thirty rupees  per month. Soon he was sent to Sironj near Dehra Dun where he excelled in geodetic surveying. Apart from mastering the usual geodetic processes, he invented quite a few of his own. Radhanath

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BRAHMAGUPTA

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Brahma Gupta was born in 598A.D in Pakistan. He gave four methods of multiplication. He gave the following formula, used in G.P series a + ar + ar2 + ar3 +……….. + arn-1 = (arn-1) ÷ (r – 1) He gave the following formulae : Area of a cyclic quadrilateral with side a, b, c, d= √(s -a)(s- b)(s -c)(s- d) where 2s = a + b + c + d Length of its diagonals . BRAHMAGUPTA

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ARYABHATA

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Aryabhata is the author of several treatises on  mathematics  and  astronomy , some of which are lost. His major work,  Aryabhatiya , a compendium of mathematics and astronomy, was extensively referred to in the Indian mathematical literature and has survived to modern times. The mathematical part of the  Aryabhatiya  covers  arithmetic ,  algebra ,  plane trigonometry , and  spherical trigonometry . It also contains  continued fractions ,  quadratic equations , sums-of-power series, and a  table of sines . ARYABHATA

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BHASKARACHARYA

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Bhaskaracharya was born in a village of Mysore district. He was the first to give that any number divided by 0 gives infinity (00). He has written a lot about zero, surds, permutation and combination. He wrote, “The hundredth part of the circumference of a circle seems to be straight. Our earth is a big sphere and that’s why it appears to be flat.” He gave the formulae like sin(A ± B) = sinA.cosB ± cosA.sinB   BHASKARACHARYA

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THANK YOU I HOPE ALL OF YOU LIKED THE PRESENTATION MADE BY:- MD. TAHSE EN AHMED