Principles of Management

Category: Education

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Basic principles of management for Managers.


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SHAHID SHEHZAD BAJWA Assistant Manager Computer Science Academic Department North nazimabad campus PAF-Karachi Institute of Economics & Technology BY PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT

L E A R N I N G O U T L I N E :

L E A R N I N G O U T L I N E What Is Management? Why Study Management? Who Are Managers? What Do Managers Do? What Is An Organization ? Understanding Organizational Behavior

L E A R N I N G O U T L I N E:

L E A R N I N G O U T L I N E How the Environment Affects Managers Leadership What Is Planning? How Do Managers Plan? Organizational Structure and Design Understanding Groups and Teams Motivation

What Is Management?:

What Is Management? Managerial Concerns Efficiency “Doing things right” Getting the most output for the least inputs Effectiveness “Doing the right things” Attaining organizational goals

Why Study Management?:

Why Study Management? The Value of Studying Management The universality of management Good management is needed in all organizations. The reality of work Employees either manage or are managed. Rewards and challenges of being a manager Management offers challenging, exciting and creative opportunities for meaningful and fulfilling work. Successful managers receive significant monetary rewards for their efforts.

Who Are Managers?:

Who Are Managers? Someone who coordinates and oversees the work of other people so that organizational goals can be accomplished.

Classifying Managers:

Classifying Managers First-line Managers Individuals who manage the work of non-managerial employees. Middle Managers Individuals who manage the work of first-line managers. Top Managers Individuals who are responsible for making organization-wide decisions and establishing plans and goals that affect the entire organization.

What Do Managers Do?:

What Do Managers Do? Functional Approach Planning Defining goals, establishing strategies to achieve goals, developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities. Organizing Arranging and structuring work to accomplish organizational goals. Leading Working with and through people to accomplish goals. Controlling Monitoring, comparing, and correcting work.

What Is An Organization?:

What Is An Organization? An Organization Defined A deliberate arrangement of people to accomplish some specific purpose (that individuals independently could not accomplish alone).

Understanding Organizational Behavior :

Organizational Behavior (OB) The study of the actions of people at work; people are the most important asset of an organization Understanding Organizational Behavior

The Organization as an Open System:

The Organization as an Open System

How the Environment Affects Managers:

How the Environment Affects Managers Environmental Uncertainty The extent to which managers have knowledge of and are able to predict change their organization’s external environment is affected by: Complexity of the environment: the number of components in an organization’s external environment. Degree of change in environmental components: how dynamic or stable the external environment is.

The External Environment:

The External Environment

Leadership (Leaders and Leadership):

Leadership ( Leaders and Leadership ) Leader – Someone who can influence others and who has managerial authority Leadership – What leaders do; the process of influencing a group to achieve goals Ideally, all managers should be leaders Leaders assume different leadership styles at different times depending on the situation: Directive leader Supportive leader Participative leader Achievement oriented leader

Female Managers:

Female Managers

What Is Planning?:

What Is Planning? Planning A primary managerial activity that involves: Defining the organization’s goals Establishing an overall strategy for achieving those goals Developing plans for organizational work activities. Types of planning Informal: not written down, short-term focus; specific to an organizational unit. Formal: written, specific, and long-term focus, involves shared goals for the organization.

How Do Managers Plan?:

How Do Managers Plan? Elements of Planning Goals (also Objectives) Desired outcomes for individuals, groups, or entire organizations Provide direction and evaluation performance criteria Plans Documents that outline how goals are to be accomplished Describe how resources are to be allocated and establish activity schedules

Types of Plans:

Types of Plans

Types of Plans:

Types of Plans Strategic Plans Apply to the entire organization. Establish the organization’s overall goals. Seek to position the organization in terms of its environment. Cover extended periods of time. Operational Plans Details of how the overall goals are to be achieved. Cover short time period.

Organizational Structure & Design:

Organizational Structure & Design Organizational Structure The formal arrangement of jobs within an organization. Organizational Design A process involving decisions about six key elements: Work specialization Departmentalization Chain of command Span of control Centralization and decentralization Formalization

Understanding Groups:

Understanding Groups Group Two or more interacting and interdependent individuals who come together to achieve specific goals. Formal groups Work groups defined by the organization’s structure that have designated work assignments and tasks. Appropriate behaviors are defined by and directed toward organizational goals. Informal groups Groups that are independently formed to meet the social needs of their members.

Group versus Individual Decision Making:

Group versus Individual Decision Making Criteria of Effectiveness Groups Individuals Accuracy  Speed  Creativity  Degree of acceptance  Efficiency 

Group Decision Making:

Group Decision Making Advantages Generates more complete information and knowledge. Generates more diverse alternatives. Increases acceptance of a solution. Increases legitimacy of decision. Disadvantages Time consuming Minority domination Pressures to conform Ambiguous responsibility


Motivation? Is the result of an interaction between the person and a situation; it is not a personal trait. Is the process by which a person’s efforts are energized, directed, and sustained towards attaining a goal. Motivation works best when individual needs are compatible with organizational goals.

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