Slide 1: Exploratory Research Design:
Qualitative Research A Classification of Marketing Research Data : A Classification of Marketing Research Data Fig. 5.1 Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research : Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research Qualitative Research
To gain a qualitative understanding of the underlying reasons and motivations
Small number of non-representative cases
Develop an initial understanding Objective
Outcome Quantitative Research
To quantify the data and generalize the results from the sample to the population of interest
Large number of representative cases
Recommend a final course of action Table 5.1 A Classification of Qualitative Research Procedures : A Classification of Qualitative Research Procedures Fig. 5.2 Characteristics of Focus Groups : Characteristics of Focus Groups Group Size 8-12
Group Composition Homogeneous, respondents, prescreened
Physical Setting Relaxed, informal atmosphere
Time Duration 1-3 hours
Recording Use of audiocassettes and videotapes
Moderator Observational, interpersonal, and communication skills of the moderator Table 5.2 Key Qualifications of Focus Group Moderators : Key Qualifications of Focus Group Moderators 1. Kindness with firmness: The moderator must combine a disciplined detachment with understanding empathy so as to generate the necessary interaction.
2. Permissiveness: The moderator must be permissive yet alert to signs that the group’s cordiality or purpose is disintegrating.
3. Involvement: The moderator must encourage and stimulate intense personal involvement.
4. Incomplete understanding: The moderator must encourage respondents to be more specific about generalized comments by exhibiting incomplete understanding. Key Qualifications of Focus Group Moderators : Key Qualifications of Focus Group Moderators 5. Encouragement: The moderator must encourage unresponsive members to participate.
6. Flexibility: The moderator must be able to improvise and alter the planned outline amid the distractions of the group process.
7. Sensitivity: The moderator must be sensitive enough to guide the group discussion at an intellectual as well as emotional level. Depth Interview Techniques: Laddering : Depth Interview Techniques: Laddering In laddering, the line of questioning proceeds from
product characteristics to user characteristics. This
technique allows the researcher to tap into the
consumer's network of meanings.
Wide body aircrafts (product characteristic)
I can get more work done
I accomplish more
I feel good about myself (user characteristic)
Advertising theme: You will feel good about yourself when flying
our airline. “You're The Boss.” Depth Interview Techniques: Hidden Issue Questioning : Depth Interview Techniques: Hidden Issue Questioning In hidden issue questioning, the focus is not on socially shared values but rather on personal “sore spots;” not on general lifestyles but on deeply felt personal concerns.
fantasies, work lives, and social lives
historic, elite, “masculine-camaraderie,” competitive activities
Advertising theme: communicate aggressiveness, high status, and competitive heritage of the airline. Depth Interview Techniques: Symbolic Analysis : Depth Interview Techniques: Symbolic Analysis Symbolic analysis attempts to analyze the symbolic meaning of objects by comparing them with their opposites. The logical opposites of a product that are investigated are: non-usage of the product, attributes of an imaginary “non-product,” and opposite types of products.
“What would it be like if you could no longer use airplanes?”
“Without planes, I would have to rely on letters and long distance calls.”
Airlines sell to the managers face-to-face communication.
Advertising theme: The airline will do the same thing for a manager as Federal Express does for a package. Definition of Projective Techniques : Definition of Projective Techniques An unstructured, indirect form of
questioning that encourages respondents to
project their underlying motivations,
beliefs, attitudes or feelings regarding
the issues of concern. Definition of Projective Techniques : Definition of Projective Techniques In projective techniques, respondents are asked to interpret the behavior of others.
In interpreting the behavior of others, respondents indirectly project their own motivations, beliefs, attitudes, or feelings into the situation. Word Association : Word Association In word association, respondents are presented with a list of words, one at a time and asked to respond to each with the first word that comes to mind.
The words of interest, called test words, are interspersed throughout the list which also contains some neutral, or filler words to disguise the purpose of the study. Completion Techniques : Completion Techniques In Sentence completion, respondents are given
incomplete sentences and asked to complete them.
Generally, they are asked to use the first word or
phrase that comes to mind.
A person who shops at Sears is ______________________
J. C. Penney is most liked by _________________________ Completion Techniques : Completion Techniques A variation of sentence completion is paragraph completion, in which the respondent completes a paragraph beginning with the stimulus phrase. Completion Techniques : Completion Techniques In story completion, respondents
are given part of a story – enough to
direct attention to a particular topic
but not to hint at the ending.
They are required to give the
conclusion in their own words. Construction Techniques : Construction Techniques With a picture response, the respondents
are asked to describe a series of pictures of
ordinary as well as unusual events.
The respondent's interpretation of the
pictures gives indications of that
individual's personality. Construction Techniques : Construction Techniques In cartoon tests, cartoon characters are shown in a
specific situation related to the problem.
The respondents are asked to indicate what one
cartoon character might say in response to the
comments of another character.
Cartoon tests are simpler to administer and
analyze than picture response techniques. A Cartoon Test : A Cartoon Test Let’s see if we can pick up some house wares at Sears Figure 5.4 Sears Expressive Techniques : Expressive Techniques In expressive techniques, respondents are presented
with a verbal or visual situation and asked to relate the
feelings and attitudes of other people to the situation.
Role playing Respondents are asked to play the role
or assume the behavior of someone else.
Third-person technique The respondent is
presented with a verbal or visual situation and the
respondent is asked to relate the beliefs and attitudes of
a third person rather than directly expressing personal
beliefs and attitudes. This third person may be a friend,
neighbor, colleague, or a “typical” person. Comparison of Focus Groups, Depth Interviews, and Projective Techniques : Comparison of Focus Groups, Depth Interviews, and Projective Techniques 1. Degree of Structure
2. Probing of individual respondents
3. Moderator bias
4. Interpretation bias
5. Uncovering subconscious information
6. Discovering innovative information
7. Obtaining sensitive information
8. Involve unusual behavior or questioning
9. Overall usefulness Relatively high
Highly useful Relatively medium
Relatively high Relatively medium Medium to high
To a limited extent
Useful Relatively low
Low to high
Somewhat useful Focus Groups Depth Interviews Projective Techniques Criteria Table 5.3 Advantages of Online Focus Groups : Advantages of Online Focus Groups Geographical constraints are removed and time constraints are lessened.
Unique opportunity to re-contact group participants at a later date.
Can recruit people not interested in traditional focus groups: doctors, lawyers, etc.
Moderators can carry on side conversations with individual respondents.
There is no travel, video taping, or facilities to arrange; so the cost is much lower. Disadvantages of Online Focus Groups : Disadvantages of Online Focus Groups Only people that have access to the Internet can participate.
Verifying that a respondent is a member of a target group is difficult.
There is lack of general control over the respondent's environment.
Only audio and visual stimuli can be tested. Products can not be touched (e.g., clothing) or smelled (e.g., perfumes).