MAL 5 Exploratory Research Design

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Slide 1: 

Exploratory Research Design: Qualitative Research

A Classification of Marketing Research Data : 

A Classification of Marketing Research Data Fig. 5.1

Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research : 

Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research Qualitative Research To gain a qualitative understanding of the underlying reasons and motivations Small number of non-representative cases Unstructured Non-statistical Develop an initial understanding Objective Sample Data Collection Data Analysis Outcome Quantitative Research To quantify the data and generalize the results from the sample to the population of interest Large number of representative cases Structured Statistical Recommend a final course of action Table 5.1

A Classification of Qualitative Research Procedures : 

A Classification of Qualitative Research Procedures Fig. 5.2

Characteristics of Focus Groups : 

Characteristics of Focus Groups Group Size 8-12 Group Composition Homogeneous, respondents, prescreened Physical Setting Relaxed, informal atmosphere Time Duration 1-3 hours Recording Use of audiocassettes and videotapes Moderator Observational, interpersonal, and communication skills of the moderator Table 5.2

Key Qualifications of Focus Group Moderators : 

Key Qualifications of Focus Group Moderators 1. Kindness with firmness: The moderator must combine a disciplined detachment with understanding empathy so as to generate the necessary interaction. 2. Permissiveness: The moderator must be permissive yet alert to signs that the group’s cordiality or purpose is disintegrating. 3. Involvement: The moderator must encourage and stimulate intense personal involvement. 4. Incomplete understanding: The moderator must encourage respondents to be more specific about generalized comments by exhibiting incomplete understanding.

Key Qualifications of Focus Group Moderators : 

Key Qualifications of Focus Group Moderators 5. Encouragement: The moderator must encourage unresponsive members to participate. 6. Flexibility: The moderator must be able to improvise and alter the planned outline amid the distractions of the group process. 7. Sensitivity: The moderator must be sensitive enough to guide the group discussion at an intellectual as well as emotional level.

Depth Interview Techniques: Laddering : 

Depth Interview Techniques: Laddering In laddering, the line of questioning proceeds from product characteristics to user characteristics. This technique allows the researcher to tap into the consumer's network of meanings. Wide body aircrafts (product characteristic)   I can get more work done   I accomplish more   I feel good about myself (user characteristic)   Advertising theme: You will feel good about yourself when flying our airline. “You're The Boss.”

Depth Interview Techniques: Hidden Issue Questioning : 

Depth Interview Techniques: Hidden Issue Questioning In hidden issue questioning, the focus is not on socially shared values but rather on personal “sore spots;” not on general lifestyles but on deeply felt personal concerns. fantasies, work lives, and social lives   historic, elite, “masculine-camaraderie,” competitive activities Advertising theme: communicate aggressiveness, high status, and competitive heritage of the airline.

Depth Interview Techniques: Symbolic Analysis : 

Depth Interview Techniques: Symbolic Analysis Symbolic analysis attempts to analyze the symbolic meaning of objects by comparing them with their opposites. The logical opposites of a product that are investigated are: non-usage of the product, attributes of an imaginary “non-product,” and opposite types of products. “What would it be like if you could no longer use airplanes?”   “Without planes, I would have to rely on letters and long distance calls.”   Airlines sell to the managers face-to-face communication.   Advertising theme: The airline will do the same thing for a manager as Federal Express does for a package.

Definition of Projective Techniques : 

Definition of Projective Techniques An unstructured, indirect form of questioning that encourages respondents to project their underlying motivations, beliefs, attitudes or feelings regarding the issues of concern.

Definition of Projective Techniques : 

Definition of Projective Techniques In projective techniques, respondents are asked to interpret the behavior of others. In interpreting the behavior of others, respondents indirectly project their own motivations, beliefs, attitudes, or feelings into the situation.

Word Association : 

Word Association In word association, respondents are presented with a list of words, one at a time and asked to respond to each with the first word that comes to mind. The words of interest, called test words, are interspersed throughout the list which also contains some neutral, or filler words to disguise the purpose of the study.

Completion Techniques : 

Completion Techniques In Sentence completion, respondents are given incomplete sentences and asked to complete them. Generally, they are asked to use the first word or phrase that comes to mind. A person who shops at Sears is ______________________   J. C. Penney is most liked by _________________________

Completion Techniques : 

Completion Techniques A variation of sentence completion is paragraph completion, in which the respondent completes a paragraph beginning with the stimulus phrase.

Completion Techniques : 

Completion Techniques In story completion, respondents are given part of a story – enough to direct attention to a particular topic but not to hint at the ending. They are required to give the conclusion in their own words.

Construction Techniques : 

Construction Techniques With a picture response, the respondents are asked to describe a series of pictures of ordinary as well as unusual events. The respondent's interpretation of the pictures gives indications of that individual's personality.

Construction Techniques : 

Construction Techniques In cartoon tests, cartoon characters are shown in a specific situation related to the problem. The respondents are asked to indicate what one cartoon character might say in response to the comments of another character. Cartoon tests are simpler to administer and analyze than picture response techniques.

A Cartoon Test : 

A Cartoon Test Let’s see if we can pick up some house wares at Sears Figure 5.4 Sears

Expressive Techniques : 

Expressive Techniques In expressive techniques, respondents are presented with a verbal or visual situation and asked to relate the feelings and attitudes of other people to the situation. Role playing Respondents are asked to play the role or assume the behavior of someone else. Third-person technique The respondent is presented with a verbal or visual situation and the respondent is asked to relate the beliefs and attitudes of a third person rather than directly expressing personal beliefs and attitudes. This third person may be a friend, neighbor, colleague, or a “typical” person.

Comparison of Focus Groups, Depth Interviews, and Projective Techniques : 

Comparison of Focus Groups, Depth Interviews, and Projective Techniques 1. Degree of Structure 2. Probing of individual respondents 3. Moderator bias 4. Interpretation bias 5. Uncovering subconscious information 6. Discovering innovative information 7. Obtaining sensitive information 8. Involve unusual behavior or questioning 9. Overall usefulness Relatively high Low Relatively medium Relatively low Low High Low No Highly useful Relatively medium High Relatively high Relatively medium Medium to high Medium Medium To a limited extent Useful Relatively low Medium Low to high Relatively high High Low High Yes Somewhat useful Focus Groups Depth Interviews Projective Techniques Criteria Table 5.3

Advantages of Online Focus Groups : 

Advantages of Online Focus Groups Geographical constraints are removed and time constraints are lessened. Unique opportunity to re-contact group participants at a later date. Can recruit people not interested in traditional focus groups: doctors, lawyers, etc. Moderators can carry on side conversations with individual respondents. There is no travel, video taping, or facilities to arrange; so the cost is much lower.

Disadvantages of Online Focus Groups : 

Disadvantages of Online Focus Groups Only people that have access to the Internet can participate. Verifying that a respondent is a member of a target group is difficult. There is lack of general control over the respondent's environment. Only audio and visual stimuli can be tested. Products can not be touched (e.g., clothing) or smelled (e.g., perfumes).