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Edit Comment Close By: TeenageProblems (62 month(s) ago) Boarding school offers various struggling youths programs for educating and balancing the lives of defiant teenagers. Treatment programs are helpful in removing learning disabilities, psychological and conduct disorders. Teens attain healthy and pleased life aft Saving..... Post Reply Close Saving..... Edit Comment Close Premium member Presentation Transcript Book Club : Book Club Professional Book Review and Discussion By Sharon Lidy LIST 5326 Slide 2: Informed Choices for Struggling Adolescent Readers: A Research-Based Guide to Instructional Programs and Practices Written by Donald D. Deshler, Annemarie Sullivan Palincsar, Gina Biancarosa, and Marnie Nair for Carnegie Corporation of NewYork. Published by the International Reading Association. Background Information : Background Information Currently I am a special education reading teacher for grades Kindergarten through 5th. I am seeking certification as a Master Reading Teacher, a Reading Specialist and ESL certification with a Masters of Education with Literacy Emphasis from the University of Texas at Arlington. I am a member of the International Reading Association and subscribe to the following professional journals: The Reading Teacher, Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, and the Reading Research Quarterly. Academic Honesty Statement : Academic Honesty Statement I have read and understand the UTA Academic Honesty clause as follows. “Academic dishonesty is a completely unacceptable mode of conduct and will not be tolerated in any form at The University of Texas at Arlington. All persons involved in academic dishonesty will be disciplined in accordance with University regulations and procedures. Discipline may include suspension or expulsion from the University. “Academic dishonesty includes, but is not limited to, cheating, plagiarism, collation, the submission for credit of any work or materials that are attributable in whole or in part to another person, taking an examination for another person, or the attempt to commit such acts.” (Regents’ Rules and Regulations, Part One, Chapter VI, Section 3, Subsection3.2., subdivision 3.22).” Further, I declare that the work being submitted for this assignment is my original work (e.g., not copied from another student or copied from another source) and has not been submitted for another class (with the exception of this statement). Sharon Lidy Date: November 12, 2008 Section I : Section I Bibliography : Bibliography Desshler, D.D., Palincsar, A.S., Biancarosa, G., Nair, M. (2007). Informed Choices for Struggling Readers. Newark, Delaware: International Reading Association. Websites : Websites To find more information about this book and purchasing this book from the International Reading association follow this link: http://www.reading.org/publications/bbv/books/bk465/index.html To find an editor’s review by Jacy Ippolito from the Harvard Educational Review, follow this link: http://www.hepg.org/her/abstract/649 Section II : Section II Summary, Critical Analysis, & Personal Response Introduction : Introduction Authors: Donald D. Deshler PH. D., (top, right) professor in the School of Education and director of the Center for Research on Learning (CRL) at the University of Kansas. Annemarie Sullivan Palincsar (bottom, right), educational studies at the University of Michigan. Gina Biancarosa (not shown), School of Education, Stanford University Marnie Nair (not shown), School of Education, Harvard University Experts in the field of Literacy... : Experts in the field of Literacy... Dr. Donald D.Deshler is the director of the Center for Research on Learning. He is a member of many advisory boards including, National Institute for Literacy, the Carnegie Corporation of New York, the Alliance for Excellent Education, and the National Governors Association. His research focuses on the design and validation of instructional strategies used in secondary classrooms. Dr. Deshler’s teaching experience includes teaching adolescents in Rural Alaska. Slide 12: Annemarie Sullivan Palincsar is the Jean and Charles Walgreen Jr. Chair of Reading and Literacy and a teacher educator in Educational Studies at the University of Michigan. Her research focus is on the design of learning environments that support self-regulation in learning activities for students who struggle in school. She has served as a member of the National Academy’s Research Counsil on the Prevention of Reading Difficulty in Young Children, the OERI/RAND Reading Study Group, and the National Research Council’s Panel on Teacher Preparation. She is also a co-editor of the journal Cognition and Instruction. Slide 13: Gina Biancarosa is a postdoctoral fellow at the Stanford University School of Education’s Institute for Research on Education Policy and Practice. Marnie Nair has worked as a Reading Specialist in middle and high schools in Oakland, New York City, and Washington, D.C. She also served as a secondary principal in New Orleans. Her research focus is on improving the supports offered for struggling readers in urban schools. Topic : Topic “Among middle and secondary school administrators and teachers, there has long been great concern about adolescent literacy, as well as frustration at the lack of attention, information, and resources being directed at this very real concern” (Deshler, Palincsar, Biancarosa, and Nair, pp. 1, 2007). Slide 15: As students gets older the complexity of the content that he or she is required to read grows also. When the student is struggling with a deficit in reading the student continues to fall further and further behind. This book discusses what has worked best for these struggling adolescent readers and also reviews 48 instructional programs that maybe used to help them. For whom was this book written? : For whom was this book written? This book was written to provide research findings for middle and high school teachers and administrators when it comes to dealing with adolescent readers who are struggling. This book is a source to help secondary educators find solutions to literacy problems. Focus of the Book : Focus of the Book The book is divided into two sections. The first part is called “Principals for Improving Adolescent Literacy” and focuses on what has worked best in schools according to research studies and how to implement the practices both in classrooms and school-wide. The book discusses myths and realities as they pertain to literacy, the cost of implementing programs campus wide and district wide, and what changes need to take place to improve campuses and districts with these practices. Slide 18: What is adolescent literacy in the United States and how is it approached currently, when as a society we need literacy to be more critically addressed? The first half of the book delves into the content of adolescent literacy and what it takes for students to learn, including but not limited to, skills, strategies, and behaviors. Also the book discusses the characteristics of literacy instruction, how to make it more powerful, as well as the costs and organizational issues involved in literacy instruction and intervention for secondary students. Slide 19: The second part of the book reviews 48 Instructional Programs. It provides criteria for selecting and evaluating the programs as well as how to use the information provided in the second part of the book. Each of the 48 reviews include the following information about the program being reviewed: Instructional Approach Professional Development necessary to implement the practices. Program evaluation Contact information sources Slide 20: The list of 48 programs reviewed in the book certainly are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to programs available. How did the authors chose which programs to include in the research? The author’s chose to focus on literacy programs that target struggling adolescent readers and offers literacy instruction. The programs were age appropriate and had been implemented with a wide range of students in different types of setting. Slide 21: The authors have created four matrixes comparing several of the program characteristics. This provides the teachers and administrators with a tool to compare a variety of programs easily. Professional development is detailed in each of the programs because they have found that the success of many programs is contingent on professional development. Each of the program reviews includes a description of what evaluation has been conducted to prove the program’s effectiveness. Personal Response : Personal Response When I was first researching books to study for our Book Club presentation, I wanted to find a book that provides the reader with usable information. I appreciated the way the book was clearly divided in to the two parts and I was immediately interested in reading the reviews of over 40 programs for literacy. My thought was “What a great resource this book could be!” I was not disappointed. It is extremely difficult to find unbiased research for programs via the internet. This book provides the reader with the nuts and bolts of each of the programs. The matrixes are very user friendly and provide a quick glance at each program. If you are looking for programs for a certain grade level, skill, certain features, and/or type of student, you can find the information easily in the matrixes. Slide 23: I found the chapter on “the Content of Adolescent Literacy Instruction” especially interesting. The authors state that though comprehension seems to be the problem for adolescent readers in middle and high school and is the end goal for reading instruction, it is usually not the whole problem. They state that the problem usually manifests itself as a comprehension problem but has a tendency to be a combination of skills that are weak, such as decoding, fluency, vocabulary, and background knowledge. All of which, as we have learned, build up to the end point which is comprehension. Decoding is usually an area that is not thought of when teaching older children, however if it is a weakness it can seriously cause a student to have low comprehension. Slide 24: This book effectively helps the reader understand the importance of all these basic skills that tend to be overlooked in older students. This book helps teachers and administrators learn how to look at programs in a way that not just targets early reading skills, but allows the user to assess students and intervene where necessary, building on strengths and focusing on needs. This allows for a program to meet the individual needs of a student, classroom, school, or district. All in all, providing the knowledge an educator would need to select a program that meets the needs of all students as well as the individual struggling student. Section III : Section III Educator’s Tip sheet Tip 1 : Tip 1 Comprehension is not assured after fluency is achieved. According to Buly and Valencia (2005), 18% of students who were fast and accurate automatic word callers had poor comprehension in a study of a district in the Northwest. A teacher would need to apply comprehension intervention strategies to help students who read fluently but are unable to comprehend. Reciprocal Teaching has been a successful strategy for teaching comprehension according to Kelly, Moore, and Tuck(1994). Reciprocal teaching uses repetitive strategies that can be used as a classroom program (Walpole & McKenna, 2004). TEKS: ELA grade 6 (7) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Literary Nonfiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the varied structural patterns and features of literary nonfiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to identify the literary language and devices used in memoirs and personal narratives and compare their characteristics with those of an autobiography. Tip 2 : Tip 2 Struggling adolescent readers usually understand basic decoding rules, but are unable to decode multisyllabic words. Students who struggle with decoding are likely to struggle with all areas of literacy (Hock, Brasseur, Deshler, Catts, Marquis, & Stribling, 2006). Those decoding gaps must be filled through direct instruction until the students have a fluent and automatic application of what they are taught and reading comprehension skills increase (Deshler en at., 2007). A program that incorporates phonics skills with fluency and comprehension would need to be used. TEKS Grade 6 (2) For students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition. (A) English language learners (ELLs) are acquiring English, learning content in English, and learning to read simultaneously. For this reason, it is imperative that reading instruction should be comprehensive and that students receive instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, decoding, and word attack skills while simultaneously being taught academic vocabulary and comprehension skills and strategies. Reading instruction that enhances ELL's ability to decode unfamiliar words and to make sense of those words in context will expedite their ability to make sense of what they read and learn from reading. Additionally, developing fluency, spelling, and grammatical conventions of academic language must be done in meaningful contexts and not in isolation. Tip 3 : Tip 3 Learning phonics in middle and high school can be highly motivation for adolescents because it is a fundamental skill that they want to master and can see results (Deshler en at., 2007). Finding guidance in teaching phonics can be found in many professional books such as Words Their Way: Word Study for Phonics, Vocabulary, and Spelling Instruction (Bear, D.R., Invernizzi, M., Templeton, S.R., & Johnson, F., 2003). TEKS Grade 6 (2) For students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition. (A) English language learners (ELLs) are acquiring English, learning content in English, and learning to read simultaneously. For this reason, it is imperative that reading instruction should be comprehensive and that students receive instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, decoding, and word attack skills while simultaneously being taught academic vocabulary and comprehension skills and strategies. Reading instruction that enhances ELL's ability to decode unfamiliar words and to make sense of those words in context will expedite their ability to make sense of what they read and learn from reading. Additionally, developing fluency, spelling, and grammatical conventions of academic language must be done in meaningful contexts and not in isolation. Tip 4 : Tip 4 In content areas, knowing words is more than recognizing and defining them (Beck, McKeown, & Kucan, 2002). Students should be pushed to be active learners by providing them with opportunities and the motivation to talk about, compare, analyze, and use the words on a regular basis. The use of graphic organizers such as the Frayer model can help deepen understanding. TEKS Grade 6 (2) Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to: (A) determine the meaning of grade-level academic English words derived from Latin, Greek, or other linguistic roots and affixes; (B) use context (e.g., cause and effect or compare and contrast organizational text structures) to determine or clarify the meaning of unfamiliar or multiple meaning words; Tip 5 : Tip 5 It is the recommendation of Marzano and his co-authors in the book A Handbook for Classroom Instruction That Works to use this 5-step process for teaching vocabulary: Present students with a brief explanation of the term Present students with a non-linguistic representation Ask the students to generate their own explanation or description Students create their own nonlinguistic representation Periodically ask students to review the accuracy of their explanations (Marzano, Norford, Paynter, Pickering, & Gaddy, 2001). TEKS Grade 6 (2) Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to:(B) use context (e.g., cause and effect or compare and contrast organizational text structures) to determine or clarify the meaning of unfamiliar or multiple meaning words; Tip 6 : Tip 6 Access to text that are age appropriate at a range of difficulty levels is important for struggling readers (Guthrie, Schafer, 2000). But it’s difficult to find fiction and nonfiction that is both interesting and accessible to below-grade-level readers. Teachers too frequently resort to “baby books”—texts that are below the student’s reading and interest levels. “First, we know that children who are motivated and who spend more time reading are better readers (Anderson, Wilson & Fielding,1988). Supporting and nurturing reading motivation and achievement is crucial to improving education prospects for children who find learning to read difficult (Allington, 1991).” TEKS Grade 6 (1) Reading/Fluency. Students read grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. Students are expected to adjust fluency when reading aloud grade-level text based on the reading purpose and the nature of the text. Tip 7 : Tip 7 According to Dresher et al, one of the simplest, most innovative practices that they have seen was in an 8th grade class in Boston, where the teacher turned over most of her book buying budget to the students. The teacher was surprised by the diversity of texts they chose and the enthusiasm they had for reading that year (2007). Tip 8 : Tip 8 Good adolescent literacy instruction works to sustain motivation and direct their own learning (Deshler, en al, 2007). If adolescents are provided with choices, it can be very effective in improving their ability to self-direct their learning and work independently (Carbo, 1983). Author Dale Schunk suggests that students must learn how to gauge progress in learning or performance. “Provide progress feedback on tasks where it is difficult for learners to gauge progress on their own (2001).” TEKS Grade 6 (1) Reading/Fluency. Students read grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. Students are expected to adjust fluency when reading aloud grade-level text based on the reading purpose and the nature of the text. Tip 9 : Tip 9 Text based collaborative learning has been shown to improve comprehension both in educational research and standardized testing (NICHD, 2000). Collaborative learning that is text based happens when the activities are text based be it a novel, short story, math word problem, or historical document. Learning and comprehension are enhanced when the students share their ideas in small groups by supporting their discussions with the texts in order to “articulate and support their views with evidence from texts (Guzzetti, 2000).” TEKS Grade 6 6) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Tip 10 : Tip 10 Scaffolds in content areas can help the struggling student acquire content knowledge while they have not yet mastered English literacy skills. Research has shown that these strategies really help and are easy to do, once teachers have learned to make these modifications (Allen, 1999), (Black & Park, 1990). A fantastic book that has a whole section on analysis matrices and graphic organizers is called “Summarization in Any Subject” and is a good investment for teachers (Wormeli, 2005). TEKS Grade 6 (2) Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to:(B) use context (e.g., cause and effect or compare and contrast organizational text structures) to determine or clarify the meaning of unfamiliar or multiple meaning words; Tip 11 : Tip 11 “No single method, program, or book will help accelerate the needs of all children or any subset of children. Only knowledgeable, reflective teachers can respond to the diverse and ever changing need of individual students" (Ivey, 2000). Section IV : Section IV Webliography/Bibliography Slide 38: http://www.carnegie.org/literacy/index.html This website leads you to the “Advancing Literacy” division of the Carnegie Corporation of New York. This new subprogram was developed to help fill in the void in educational research pertaining to literacy in grades 4-12. They believe that the field of education has not kept up with the demands of adolescent education. Available at this website is many research articles and publications that focus on the subject of adolescent literacy, including the book that I have review in this presentation. http://www.eric.ed.gov/ The Eric database is a source for a seemingly unending supply of research, journals, and reviews in the field of education. Many of the articles are available in full test right on the website. With over 4000 records added with in the last month, the database continues to grow. Slide 39: http://www.ciera.org/index.html The CIERA (Center for Improvement of Early Reading Achievement) website maintained by the University of Michagan College of Education contains the CIERA Archive which is a repository for publications that they believe will be useful to researchers and practitioners in the field of early literacy. http://www.hoover.org/publications/ednext Education Next is a journal of opinion and research as pertaining to the field of education. By searching through the articles of this website you will find topics such as the politics of education, No Child Left Behind, education reform, education and the media, teacher education and certification, and many, many more. http://www.cse.ucla.edu The national Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, & Student Testing is maintained by the Graduate School of Education & Information Studies of the University of California at Los Angeles. This website provides resources that contain assessment information for teachers of K-12 age children. Articles available include, Important Lessons: Teachers Adjust Their Instructional Methods by Joan Herman and Ronald Dietel and Measuring Up for the Future: The Standards and Measurements of Student Achievement by Eva L. Baker. This site could be a great resource for assessment information and rubric making. Slide 40: http://www.readingonline.org/ This website, provided by the International Reading Association, offers hundreds of articles on a range of topics in reading education. To find articles that match your particular interests, simply search or browse the author, title, and subject indexes. http://www.fairtest.org/k-12 FairTest's elementary and secondary testing issues focuses on the following concerns: Standardized tests are harmful to children and education; Basing high-stakes decisions on standardized testing is bad educational practices. Authentic assessment, such as performance assessment and portfolios, must be implemented at all levels, from individual classrooms to large-scale assessment, as an alternative to standardized testing. Slide 41: http://www.ucalgary.ca/~dkbrown/index.html This link is to a website that is a Children’s Literature Web Guide and provides internet resources for books for children and young adults and attempts to provide the reader with a compilation of information provided by book lovers. On this site you can find al sorts of fun links including teacher, parent, and student resources, stories and authors on the web, internet book discussion groups, and readers theaters. http://www.literacy.uconn.edu/ This link will take you to the Literacy Web at the University of Connecticut. You can search for information by grade level and find out what is new in literacy topics and research. Information can be found about what's happening in early literacy and learn how these practices lead into what happens in adolescent literacy programs. Not to mention the many topics within the areas of reading comprehension, content area literacy, and multicultural literacy. Slide 42: Allen, J. (1999). Words, Words, Words: Teaching Vocabulary in grades 4-12. York, ME: Stenhouse Publishers. Allington, R.L. (1991). “The Legacy of Slow It Down and Make It More Concrete.” In Zutell, J. & McCormick, S. (Eds.). Learner Factors/Teacher Factors: Issues in Literacy Research and Instruction. Chicago: National Reading Conference. Anderson, R.C.; Wilson, P.T. & Fielding, L.G. (1988). “Growth in Reading and How Children Spend Their Time Outside School.” Reading Research Quarterly, 23 (3), pp. 285–303. Bear, D.R., Invernizzi, M., Templeton, S.R., & Johnson, F., (2003). Words Their Way: Word Study for Phonics, Vocabulary, and Spelling Instruction. (3rd Ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hill. Slide 43: Beck, I.L., McKeown, M.G., & Kucan, L. (2002). Bringing Words to Life. New York: Guilford. Black, H., & Park, S. (1990).Organizing Thinking: Book II: Graphic Organizers. Pacific Grove, CA: Critical Thinking Books and Software. Buly, M.R. & Valencia, S.W. (2002). Below the Bar: Profiles of Students who Fail State Reading Assessments. Education Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 24, 219-239. Desshler, D.D., Palincsar, A.S., Biancarosa, G., Nair, M. (2007). Informed Choices for Struggling Readers. Newark, Delaware: International Reading Association. Guzzetti, B.J. (2000). Learning counter-intuitive schience concepts:What have we learned from over a decade of research? Reading and Writing Quarterly, 16, 89-98. Slide 44: Houge, T.T., Geier, C., & Peyton, D. (2008). Targeting Adolescents' Literacy Skills Using One-To-One Instruction With Research-Based Practices. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 51, 640–650. Hock, M.F., Brasseur, I.F., Deshler, D.D., Catts, H.W., Marquis, J., & Stribling, J.W., et al. (2006). What is the Nature of Struggling Adolescent Readers in Urban Schools? Lawrence: University of Kansas, Center for Research on Learning. Ivey, Gay (2000). “Redesigning Reading Instruction.” Educational Leadership. September, pp. 42–45. Kelly, M., Moore, D.W., & Tuck, B.F. (1994). Reciprocal Teaching In a Regular Primary School Classroom. Journal of Educational Research, 88, 53-61. Slide 45: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. (2000). Report of the Nation Reading Panel. Teaching Children to Read: An Evidence-based Assessment of the Scientific Research Literature on Reading and its Implications for Instruction. (NIH Publication No. 00-4769). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Schunk, Dale. (2001). Self-Regulation through Goal Setting. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service ED462671) Walpole, S. & McKenna, M.C. (2004). The Literacy Coach’s Handbook: A Guide to Research-Based Practice. New York : The Guilford Press. Wormeli, R. (2005). Summarization in Any Subject: 50 Techniques to Improve Student Learning. Alexandria, Virginia: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Section V : Section V Teacher Interview Slide 47: I have a friend who teaches 6th grade English Language Arts at Hill Middle School in Dallas. I met her when the school that we worked was K-6, prior to moving 6th grade to middle school. I was interested in getting her perspective on resources for adolescent readers, though I feel like she probably feels like I do about not having a lot of choice when it comes to selection of programs. When I walked onto her classroom it was full of desks and pretty bare on the walls, but there were some student generated venn diagrams taped up randomly. There were also some “election” activities posted. I began by asking her how she feels about the curriculum that she has access to for the 6th grade curriculum. She said that she thought that it was lacking a lot of substance. The activities were weak and did not inspire critical thinking and did not produce enough student generated work, and the district is promoting the reduction in worksheets and more authentic artifacts. She stated that the district supplies teachers with Curriculum Central and that does add a lot to the curriculum. I asked her if she though that there was a curriculum program out there that did provide all that is needed for a thorough program. She said that she thought that any program would need to be supplemented with additional resources. Also she stated that each individual group also might need something that another group might not need. No two kids come from the same place and no program would really be able to cover everything. Slide 48: The next question that I brought up was about professional organizations. She said that she used to be a member of the IRA, but in the past few years she has not kept up with her membership. She said that she went to some literacy seminars and conferences that were presented by various organizations when she was in college and went to a conference for IRA one Summer during one of her first years teaching. She said that the experience was very good. She enjoyed the activities that she learned and had a lot of inspiration. But it was difficult to keep up the excitement once she got back to work and into another year of testing, behavior issues, and data. Finally I wanted to get her reaction to the “myths” mentioned in Chapter one of the book “Informed Choices for Struggling Adolescent Readers (Dreshler en al, 2007)”. I gave her the statements as comments, not myths, to see her uninfluenced opinions of the comments. Slide 49: The first myth was “Struggling adolescent readers can’t read at all.” Comment: She felt that was defiantly not true. There are many students who can read, but struggle with comprehension. “If an adolescent can read the words, comprehension will naturally follow.” She says that this would not always be the case. Normally she feels that it would naturally follow but in some cases, the student may have a disability or ADD. She has had dyslexic students in the past who can read, but concentrate so hard on reading accurately, that they miss the meaning. “Adolescents today can’t read like they used to.” She says she would be able to comment on that because she wouldn’t be able to have a reason for the myth seeming true other than just her feeling. But she didn’t know if that is fact or opinion. “Adolescents today can’t read well because they spend too much time on TV, computers, video games, etc.” She stated that it does seem that way but she wouldn’t consider herself an expert. “The adolescent literacy problem is primarily one of poverty, race, disability, and linguistic backgrounds.” She commented that she can only speak about the students that she has been in contact with. She has always worked at a school in a low-socioeconomic, high risk community at a title one school. The students that she has been in contact with have mostly been poor and there have been strugglers and successful students regardless of their backgrounds. She has had students that have had no parental support and been brilliant readers and those whose parents have always been supportive who have still struggled. She doesn’t know what the common thread is or even if there is one. Reflection Statement : Reflection Statement Part 1 Slide 51: This assignment was created during the Fall of 2008 during my first practicum for my degree masters of education with a literacy, as required for LIST 5326, Teaching the Language Arts in Secondary Schools. This assignment demonstrates my ability to seek out and apply current research findings in my field. Reflection Statement : Reflection Statement Part 2 National and State Competencies : National and State Competencies This assignment shows that I have a firm understanding of the NCTE standards 2, 3, and 4. NCTE 2: Candidate has knowledge of the foundations of reading and writing. I had to apply standard 2 in creation of activities that provide foundational skills to adolescent readers who may have missed those skills previously. NCTE 3: Candidates uses a variety of assessment tools and practices to plan and evaluate effective reading instruction. I had to demonstrate understanding of standard 3 in the evaluation analysis of reading instruction programs. NCTE 4: Candidates create a literate environment that fosters reading and writing by integrating foundational knowledge, use of instructional practices, approaches and methods, and appropriate use of assessments. I had to apply standard 4 in creation of the teacher tip sheet to provide the reader with activities to use in the classroom. Slide 54: This assignment demonstrates that I have a firm understanding of the following IRA standards: IRA 1.4-This assignment demonstrates knowledge of the major components of reading by applying the skills in creation of a tips and activities for use in the classroom. IRA 2.2 & 2.3-This assignment shows my knowledge of a wide range of instructional activities and the knowledge and use of a wide range of materials through the study of many instructional programs and the creation of an activity tip sheet for use in classrooms. IRA 4.1-My ability to show my knowledge of how to use student interests, reading abilities, and backgrounds as a foundations for a reading and writing program. IRA 5.1-5.2-With the peer reviews and discussions of book club presentations, I will demonstrate my competency in working with colleagues to observe, evaluate, and provide feedback on assignments. Slide 55: This assignment has shown my understanding of the following TExES Reading Specialist competencies. Domain I 001-008-oral language, phonemic awareness, concepts of print, word identification, fluency, comprehension, vocabulary development, and written language are all clearly found in my assignment for use in literacy based classrooms. Domain II 009-010-Assessment and instructional methods and resources are used extensively in the project to create a successful literacy program. Domain III 011,012-Instruction for ELLs and special needs students are clearly addressed and a focus of this assignment researching and creating activities for assisting and remediating them in the classroom. Domain 013-014-This assignment focuses on theoretical foundations and research based curriculums by analyzing and evaluating many literacy programs. I will collaborate with my colleagues to review, observe, and provide feedback for their assignments. Reflection Statement : Reflection Statement Part 3 Slide 57: This lesson demonstrates my concern for struggling adolescent learners who though are in a secondary classroom are still lacking basic literacy skills. Therefore, I incorporated strategies to use with students who are having difficulties not only in English Language Arts, but also in content areas such as science, social studies, and mathematics. This lesson demonstrates my understanding that students maybe struggling for many different reasons such as learning disabilities, ESL, high-risk, low motivation, and many unknown factors. To that end, I used highly motivational and effective instructional techniques that can be used in all content areas to assist struggling adolescent readers. You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.