socialization

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socialization:

socialization

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Definition The process by which an individuals acquire the knowledge, language, social skills, and value to conform to the norms and roles required for integration into a group or community. It is a combination of both self-imposed (because the individual wants to conform) and externally-imposed rules, and the expectations of the others.

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What does socialization teach us? Language Culture (norms, values, beliefs, etc.) Understanding of others Understanding of ourselves as a social being or a “social self” Emergence of the “social self”

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Types of socialization Primary socialization The first socialization and individual undergoes in childhood through which he becomes a member of society. Primary socialization generally occurs during the very early stages of childhood. This time does not so much promote individual abstract thought as much as it gives one simply a spot in society.

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Secondary socialization The process of learning what is appropriate behaviour as a member of a smaller group within the larger society. It is usually associated with teenagers and adults, and involves smaller changes than those occurring in primary socialization, such as entering a new profession, or relocating to a new environment or society.

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Anticipatory socialization The processes of socialization in which a person "rehearses" for future positions, occupations, and social relationships. Reciprocal socialization When children socialize parents like parents socialize children. Resocialization The process of unlearning old norms, roles, and values, and learning new ones required in a new social environment.

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Total institution A place where people are isolated from the rest of society for a set period of time and their lives are almost completely controlled by officials who run the institution.

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Importance of Socialization Socialization is vital to culture It is through socialization process that every society transmits its culture to succeeding generations. Through this continuing process, each generation acquires the elements of its society’s culture-its knowledge, symbols, values, norms, beliefs, etc.

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Socialization is vital to personality development The training of every child received through the process of socialization greatly affects his personality. Infants develop social attachments when they learn to feel for others and see that others care for them.

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Socialization is vital for sex role differentiation Socialization provides every individual the expected role he or she is to play in the society according to their sexes.

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Agencies of Socialization An institution or group that prepares an individual for social life and society. The Family The most important agent of socialization, because it stands at the center of children’s lives. Provides for basic needs, and teaches children skills, cultural values, and attitudes about themselves and others.

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Passes on to children a social position (places them in society in terms of race, ethnicity, religion and class). Socializes children into gender roles. The School Schooling enlarges children’s social world to include people with social backgrounds different from their own. Formal schooling teaches children a wide range of knowledge and skills.

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School is the child’s first experience with bureaucracy. Socializes children into gender roles. The Peer Group Provides young people the experience in developing social relationships on their own and establishing an identity apart from their family. Provides the opportunity to discuss interests not shared by adults.

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Provides a sense of belonging that eases the anxiety of breaking away from the family. The Mass Media Spreads information on a mass scale, and functions to connect people. Influences our attitudes and behavior through the images and messages it conveys. Mirrors our society’s patterns of inequality and rarely challenges the status quo. Reflects the values of the dominant culture.

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The Work Place It is where formal socialization takes place. The Church To which the individual is introduced, will certainly affect his being. The Neighborhood It is where the child is introduced to the realities of life and learns particular sets of values and beliefs from other people.