Terrorism

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CATASTROPHES & TOURISM INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM

INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM:

INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM

CONTENTS:

ORIGIN OF TERM DEFINATION OF TERRORISM CHARACTERSTICTS OF TERRORISM TYPES OF TERRORISM FUNDING TACTICS OF TERRORISM IMPACTS OF TERRORISM IMPACTS OF TERRORISM ON TOURISM INDUSTRY BAMIYANA TALIBAN ATTACK PICTURES OF TERRORISM ATTACK IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES CONCLUSION REFERENCES PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES CONCLUSION 3 CONTENTS

ORIGIN OF TERM:

ORIGIN OF TERM "Terror" comes from the Latin verb terrere meaning "to frighten". The terror cimbricus was a panic and state of emergency in Rome in response to the approach of warriors of the Cimbri tribe in 105 BC. The Jacobins cited this precedent when imposing a Reign of Terror during the French Revolution. After the Jacobins lost power, the word "terrorist" became a term of abuse. in modern times "terrorism" usually refers to the killing of innocent people by a private group in such a way as to create a media spectacle. This meaning can be traced back to Sergey Nechayev , who described himself as a "terrorist". Nechayev founded the Russian terrorist group "People's Retribution" in 1869.

DEFINATION OF TERRORISM:

The definition of terrorism has proved controversial. Various legal systems and government agencies use different definitions of terrorism in their national legislation. Moreover, the International community has been slow to formulate a universally agreed, legally binding definition of this crime. These difficulties arise from the fact that the term "terrorism" is politically and emotionally charged. Terrorism is the destruction of the people or property by people not acting on behalf of an establishment government for the purpose of redressing a real or imaginary injustice attributed to an established government an aimed directly or in directly at an established government . 5 DEFINATION OF TERRORISM

CHARACTERISTICS OF TERRORISM:

Not acting on behalf of an established government. The act of destruction is performed by a person or a group of persons. The act of destruction is performed to redress real or imaginary injustice. The act is aimed directly or in directly at an established government, who is seen as the cause of the injustice. without these characteristic an act of destruction of the people or property is not terrorism. It is either an accident, or an act of war, or a matter of internal policy, an ordinary common law crime [murder etc] If destruction of people or property is caused unintentionally, it is an accident. If destruction of people or property is undertaken by or on behalf of an established government against another country, it is considered war, not terrorism. 6 CHARACTERISTICS OF TERRORISM

TYPES OF TERRORISM:

In early 1975, the Law Enforcement Assistant Administration in the United States formed the National Advisory Committee on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals. One of the five volumes that the committee wrote was entitled Disorders and Terrorism, produced by the Task Force on Disorders and Terrorism under the direction of H.H.A. Cooper, Director of the Task Force staff. The Task Force classified terrorism into six categories. 1. Civil disorder – A form of collective violence interfering with the peace, security, and normal functioning of the community. 2. Political terrorism – Violent criminal behaviour designed primarily to generate fear in the community, or substantial segment of it, for political purposes. 7 TYPES OF TERRORISM

TYPES OF TERRORISM:

3. Non-Political terrorism – Terrorism that is not aimed at political purposes but which exhibits “conscious design to create and maintain a high degree of fear for coercive purposes, but the end is individual or collective gain rather than the achievement of a political objective.” 4. Quasi-terrorism – The activities incidental to the commission of crimes of violence that are similar in form and method to genuine terrorism but which nevertheless lack its essential ingredient. It is not the main purpose of the quasi-terrorists to induce terror in the immediate victim as in the case of genuine terrorism, but the quasi-terrorist uses the modalities and techniques of the genuine terrorist and produces similar consequences and reaction. For example, the fleeing felon who takes hostages is a quasi-terrorist, whose methods are similar to those of the genuine terrorist but whose purposes are quite different. TYPES OF TERRORISM

TYPES OF TERRORISM:

Limited political terrorism – Genuine political terrorism is characterized by a revolutionary approach; limited political terrorism refers to “acts of terrorism which are committed for ideological or political motives but which are not part of a concerted campaign to capture control of the state. Official or state terrorism –"referring to nations whose rule is based upon fear and oppression that reach similar to terrorism or such proportions.” It may also be referred to as Structural Terrorism defined broadly as terrorist acts carried out by governments in pursuit of political objectives, often as part of their foreign policy. TYPES OF TERRORISM

FUNDING :

FUNDING Terrorist financing: State sponsors have constituted a major form of funding; for example, PLO, DFLP and some other terrorist groups were funded by the Soviet Union. "Revolutionary tax" is another major form of funding, and essentially a euphemism for "protection money". Revolutionary taxes are typically extorted from businesses, and they also "play a secondary role as one other means of intimidating the target population". Other major sources of funding include kidnapping for ransoms, smuggling, fraud and robbery. The Financial Action Task Force is an inter-governmental body whose mandate, since October 2001, has included combatting terrorist financing.

TACTICS OF TERRORISM :

TACTICS OF TERRORISM Terrorism is a form of asymmetric warfare, and is more common when direct conventional warfare will not be effective because forces vary greatly in power. The context in which terrorist tactics are used is often a large-scale, unresolved political conflict. The type of conflict varies widely; historical examples include: Secession of a territory to form a new sovereign state or become part of a different state Dominance of territory or resources by various ethnic groups Imposition of a particular form of government Economic deprivation of a population Opposition to a domestic government or occupying army Religious fanaticism Terrorist attacks are often targeted to maximize fear and publicity, usually using explosives or poison. There is concern about terrorist attacks employing weapons of mass destruction. Terrorist organizations usually methodically plan attacks in advance, and may train participants, plant undercover agents, and raise money from supporters or through organized crime. Communications occur through modern telecommunications, or through old-fashioned methods such as couriers.

RESPONSES TO TERRORISM:

RESPONSES TO TERRORISM Responses to terrorism are broad in scope. They can include re-alignments of the political spectrum and reassessments of fundamental values. Specific types of responses include: Targeted laws, criminal procedures, deportations, and enhanced police powers Target hardening, such as locking doors or adding traffic barriers Pre-emptive or reactive military action Increased intelligence and surveillance activities Preemptive humanitarian activities More permissive interrogation and detention policies The term counter-terrorism has a narrower connotation, implying that it is directed at terrorist actors. Some 1,271 government organizations and 1,931 private companies work on programs related to counterterrorism, homeland security and intelligence in about 10,000 locations across the United States.

MASS MEDIA :

MASS MEDIA Media exposure may be a primary goal of those carrying out terrorism, to expose issues that would otherwise be ignored by the media. Some consider this to be manipulation and exploitation of the media. The internet has created a new channel for groups to spread their messages. This has created a cycle of measures and counter measures by groups in support of and in opposition to terrorist movements. The United Nations has created its own online counter-terrorism resource. The mass media will, on occasion, censor organizations involved in terrorism (through self-restraint or regulation) to discourage further terrorism. However, this may encourage organizations to perform more extreme acts of terrorism to be shown in the mass media. Conversely James F. Pastor explains the significant relationship between terrorism and the media, and the underlying benefit each receives from the other. There is always a point at which the terrorist ceases to manipulate the media gestalt. A point at which the violence may well escalate, but beyond which the terrorist has become symptomatic of the media gestalt itself. Terrorism as we ordinarily understand it is innately media-related.

TERRORISM DATABASES :

TERRORISM DATABASES The following terrorism databases are or were made publicly available for research purposes, and track specific acts of terrorism: MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base Global Terrorism Database Worldwide Incidents Tracking System Tocsearch (dynamic database) The following publicly available resource indexes electronic and bibliographic resources on the subject of terrorism: Human Security Gateway The following terrorism databases are maintained in secrecy by the United State Government for intelligence and counter-terrorism purposes: Terrorist Identities Datamart Environment Terrorist Screening Database.

PowerPoint Presentation:

BAMIYANA TALIBAN ATTACK

History :

History

Attacks on the Buddha's statue :

Attacks on the Buddha's statue

under the Taliban Preface to 2001 :

under the Taliban Preface to 2001

PowerPoint Presentation:

Dynamiting and destruction March 2001

PowerPoint Presentation:

Commitment to rebuild

PowerPoint Presentation:

RECONSTRUCTION OF THE GREAT BUDDHA OF BAMIYAN, AFGHANISTAN

IMPACTS OF TERRORISM :

Raised tensions and sparked demonstrations throughout the world. Expose the gaps in security in the government’s policy and to challenge it The economic importance of tourism is undeniable, enormous, , leading to unemployment Homelessness, deflation, crime and other economic and social ills Many death causes, injuries IMPACTS OF TERRORISM

IMPACTS OF TERRORISM on tourism industry :

Terrorist activity may generate a decline in tourism revenue. Regional and global economic performance. Impact on travel, hospitality and market. Impacts on culture, festivals, exhibitions, heritage sites, agriculture & nature. Fear to all (and also living creatures). IMPACTS OF TERRORISM on tourism industry

CONCLUSION:

CONCLUSION

CONCLUSION:

CONCLUSION

REFERENCE:

wikipedia Google.co.in - images 35 REFERENCE